islam

Un millar de personas se manifiestan en Kabul contra el linchamiento de una mujer

Posted on


Un millar de personas se manifiestan en Kabul contra el linchamiento de una mujer
POR: AGENCIA FRANCE PRESS · FUENTE: EL PERIÓDICO · 24 MARZO, 2015

linchamiento-mujer-en-Kabul-Afganistan-2015

linchamiento mujer en Kabul Afganistan 2015

Más de un millar de personas se han manifestado este martes en Kabul para protestar contra el linchamientoel pasado jueves en la capital afgana de una mujer joven, Farkhunda, acusada de quemar un Corán. Bajo una lluvia torrencial, los manifestantes, marcharon coreando consignas como “basta de ignorancia”, “los asesinos de Farkhunda deben ser castigados” o “justicia para Farkhunda”.

Farkhunda, de 27 años, fue golpeada hasta la muerte por una multitud tras ser acusada de haber quemado un Corán. Su cuerpo fue arrojado después al río Kabul. Este lunes, ante el parlamento, el ministro del Interior, Noorul Haq Ulumi, afirmó que la joven era inocente: “La acusación es completamente falsa. Farkhunda era una mujer religiosa, ella era inocente”.

“ERA NUESTRA HERMANA”

“Ella era nuestra hermana. La gente que la mató no tenía respeto por las mujeres, por la ley ni por la sharia,” dijo el martes un manifestante.

Al menos 26 personas han sido detenidas desde el viernes en relación con este caso. Además han sido interrogados 20 agentes de policía ya que en las imágenes del linchamento se les veía en el escenario de los hechos sin intervenir.

————–
https://laicismo.org/2015/un-millar-de-personas-se-manifiestan-en-kabul-contra-el-linchamiento-de-una-mujer/124189

El Islam y la mujer

Posted on Actualizado enn


El Islam y la mujer 

Autor:Paulo Arieu

blog2

imagen n0.

El Islam es una religión que no reconoce la igualdad de género, descalifica a la mujer y en casos donde pueden gobernar sin un control del mundo secular, anulan a la mujer en todos sus derechos (Redacción, 03-01-2015). Entre los musulmanes, “es común encontrar historias de abuso contra la mujer (desde la castración del clítoris hasta la muerte, pasando por una gama horrenda de violaciones sistemáticas de los derechos a opinión, religión, conciencia y libre desplazamiento)” (Núñez, 2011). El fundamento de dichas prácticas se encuentra en la interpretación del Corán, libro sagrado de los islamitas.

Mahoma señala que “los hombres tienen autoridad sobre las mujeres en virtud de la preferencia que Allah ha dado a los unos sobre las otras” (Sura 4, 34). Además el islamismo supone la inferioridad natural de la mujer (“los hombres están en un grado (darayatum) por encima de las mujeres” (Sura 2, 228). La autoridad del marido sobre la mujer es indiscutible (“vuestras mujeres son vuestro campo de labrar, id, pues, cuando queráis” (Sura 2, 223). Se autoriza la agresión psíquica y física (“¡Amonestad a aquellas mujeres que teméis que se rebelen, no os acerquéis más a ellas, pegadles!” (Sura 4, 34). La mujer no puede escoger ella su esposo. Es incapaz de recibir herencia o una herencia discriminatoria por ser mujer. En el matrimonio, la mujer sirve del varón. Con la llegada del Islam, el Corán reduce a cuatro el número de las esposas legítimas y prescribe que el marido debe tratarlas con una perfecta equidad. La poligamia es permitida ya que Mahoma tuvo quince mujeres y aconsejaba “casaos, de entre las mujeres que sean buenas para vosotros, con dos, tres o cuatro; pero si os teméis no ser equitativos…entonces con una sola o las que posea vuestra diestra” (Sura 4,3). Situaciones como la reclusión permanente dentro de sus hogares, el uso obligatorio del hiyab —velo— o la burqa aumentan la sensación de desamparo y soledad la vida de muchas mujeres musulmanas.

Si a eso se suma los llamados “homicidios de honor” que llevan a la tumba a miles de mujeres simplemente por traer “vergüenza” a sus familias y cuyas muertes permanecen impunes, tenemos un cuadro horrible de una situación que es amparada por conceptos religiosos” (Núñez, 2011). Y un aspecto terriblemente discriminatorio es que “aunque en muchos pasajes del Corán hay un llamado a la paz y al respeto al ser humano dicho mandato no alcanza a la mujer pues en la práctica se lo aplica con exclusividad a los varones” (Núñez, 2011). El Islam no contempla el celibato como práctica religiosa, y considera que el estado natural del ser humano es el matrimonio. El Islam no permite tanto los hombres como las mujeres casarse con personas de otras religiones. Según el Corán en (Sura 2:221)

“Pero los intérpretes contemporáneos, permiten a los musulmanes casarse con mujeres de otras religiones abrahámicas (judías o cristianas), ya que consideran legalmente o automáticamente la determinación de la religión de los hijos, siguen la religión del padre, el varón. En cambio, a una mujer musulmana sólo se le permite casarse con un varón musulmán, entre otras razones para evitar que sus hijos puedan educarse como no musulmanes. El contrato matrimonial entre una mujer musulmana y un varón no musulmán se considera tradicionalmente como ilegal y nulo, por tanto un adulterio desde el punto de vista legal. La misma regla se aplica por los expertos en Shari’a (ley islámica) para el contrato matrimonial entre un varón musulmán y una mujer de fe no monoteísta, como el hinduismo. El Corán afirma la inferioridad esencial de la mujer respeto al hombre en (Sura 4:176) “Además el testimonio de una mujer ante la justicia vale la mitad del de un hombre; (Sura 2:282) 

“Muhammad el Profeta del Islam explicando este versículo, en Saђiђ Al- Bujari, ђadiz 2658 dice: La mujer la falta cerebro”.(Naaman,06-02-2013).No hay dudas que estas palabras son completamente ofensivas, hirientes, machistas e inadmisibles para cualquier mujer que goza al menos de una mínima educación secular. Y según citan medios de una fuente local, milicianos del Estado Islámico les han cortado las manos a tres mujeres y han dado latigazos a varios hombres por usar teléfonos móviles en una ciudad iraquí (REUTERS / Stringer, 02-14-2015). Incluso, el grupo extremista ISIS, establece las edades para el matrimonio y los conocimientos que pueden adquirir las mujeres (Nación, 02-06-2015). Cuesta comprender como es posible que con afirmaciones como esta, tantas mujeres se dejen seducir actualmente por el Islam. 

Al leer acerca de estas actitudes tan misoginas en el Islam, no puedo dejar de pensar cuanta diferencia que hay con la libertad que goza la mujer en el cristianismo actual e incluso cuanto contraste con la mujer occidental actual, que muchas veces transforma su libertad en libertinaje, su feminidad en feminismo y su hermosura fisica en hembrismo insoportable. Cuantas mujeres que no valoran la libertad que tienen en la fe de Jesus y que en vez de guardar sus caminos, prefieren derrochar la vida de la mano de algun liberal que las seduce con su verborragia. Que pena,cuantas mujeres hoy gimen de soledad en un mundo donde la libertad existe pero no se valora. Porque el pecado puede ser atractivo, pero vivir en el infierno aqui en la tierra y vivir en el infierno alla por toda la eternidad, no me parece una buena opcion.

———–

imagenes

 imagen n0.

  Referencias bibliograficas 

http://www.religionenlibertad.com/el-matrimonio-y-el-divorcio-en-el-islam-29496.htm

El matrimonio y el divorcio en el islam

Posted on


El matrimonio y el divorcio en el islam

La situación de las mujeres en Arabia antes del comienzo del Islam era lamentable donde las mujeres tenían pocos derechos, los hombres podían casarse con cuantas mujeres quisieran y repudiarlas a voluntad sin compensación alguna. Las mujeres repudiadas, totalmente dependientes del marido para sobrevivir, acababan con frecuencia en la miseria y a menudo se convertían en prostitutas o esclavas. Muhammad el Profeta del Islam le perturbaban y estaba menos satisfecho aún con las practicas sociales y religiosas en su entorno; el politeísmo, la inmoralidad, la borrachera, el jugar por dinero, la injusta situación de la mujer en aquel tiempo, sobre todo el enterrar vivas como indeseables a las recién nacidas, algo que no solo se practicaba en su ciudad natal La Meca, sino en toda Arabia.

Con la llegada del Islam, el Corán reduce a cuatro el número de las esposas legítimas y prescribe que el marido debe tratarlas con una perfecta equidad. (Sura 4:3) “Si teméis no ser equitativos con los huérfanos, entonces, casaos con las mujeres que os gusten: dos, tres o cuatro. Pero, si teméis no obrar con justicia, entonces con una sola o con vuestras esclavas. Así, evitaréis mejor el obrar mal”. Con todo, el hombre puede tomar entre sus esclavas tantas concubinas como le plazca.

Lo curioso, es que el propio Muhammad el Profeta de los musulmanes y él fundador del Islam no aplicó este mandato o este ley islámica (Al- Shari`a). Oficialmente Muhammad tuvo diez mujeres y dos concubinas, además de mujeres de placer, llegó a tener hasta 55 mujeres (Más adelante en otros artículos hablo de las mujeres de Muhammad).

El matrimonio se compone pago de la dote por parte del marido y comprobación del consentimiento de las partes (la mujer, jurídicamente incapacitada, está reemplazada por su tutor matrimonial).

El Islam no contempla el celibato como práctica religiosa, y considera que el estado natural del ser humano es el matrimonio.

El Islam no permite tanto los hombres como las mujeres casarse con personas de otras religiones. Según el Corán en (Sura 2:221) “No os caséis con mujeres asociadotas (de otras religiones) hasta que crean. Una esclava creyente es mejor que una asociadora, aunque ésta os guste más. No caséis con asociadores hasta que éstos crean. Un esclavo creyente es mejor que un asociador, aunque éste os guste más. Ésos os llaman al Fuego, en tanto que Alá os llama al Jardín y al perdón si quiere, y explica Sus aleyas a los hombres. Quizás, así, se dejen amonestar”.

Pero los intérpretes contemporáneos, permite a los musulmanes casarse con mujeres de otras religiones abrahámicas (judías o cristianas), ya que consideran legalmente o automáticamente la determinación de la religión de los hijos, siguen la religión del padre, el varón. En cambio, a una mujer musulmana sólo se le permite casarse con un varón musulmán, entre otras razones para evitar que sus hijos puedan educarse como no musulmanes. El contrato matrimonial entre una mujer musulmana y un varón no musulmán se considera tradicionalmente como ilegal y nulo, por tanto un adulterio desde el punto de vista legal. La misma regla se aplica por los expertos en Shari’a (ley islámica) para el contrato matrimonial entre un varón musulmán y una mujer de fe no monoteísta, como el hinduismo.

El Corán afirma la inferioridad esencial de la mujer respeto al hombre en (Sura 4: 176) “Te piden tu parecer. Di: Dios os da el Suyo a propósito de los parientes colaterales. Si un hombre muere sin dejar hijos, pero sí una hermana, ésta heredará la mitad de lo que deja, y si ella muere sin dejar hijos, él heredará todo de ella. Si el difunto deja dos, éstas heredarán los dos tercios de lo que deje. Si tiene hermanos, varones y hembras, a cada varón le corresponderá tanto como a dos hembras juntas. Dios os aclara esto para que no os extraviéis. Dios es omnisciente”. La herencia recae sobre la línea paterna y en ella cuentan las mujeres por una mitad.

Además el testimonio de una mujer ante la justicia vale la mitad del de un hombre; (Sura 2:282)“Creyentes si contraéis una deuda por un plazo determinado, ponedlo por escrito. Que un escribano tome fiel nota en vuestra presencia, sin rehusarse a escribir como Dios le dé a entender. Que escriba. Que el deudor dicte en el temor de Dios, su Señor, y que no deduzca nada. Y si el deudor fuera necio, débil o incapaz de dictar, que dicta su procurador con fidelidad. Llamad, para que sirvan de testigos, a dos de vuestros hombres; si no los hay, elegid a un hombre y a dos mujeres de entre quienes os plazcan como testigos, de tal modo que si una yerra, la otra subsane su error. Que los testigos no se sustraigan cuando se les llame. Que no os repugne suscribir una deuda, sea pequeña o grande, precisando su vencimiento. Esto es más equitativo ante Dios, es más correcto para el testimonio y da menos lugar a dudas. A menos que se trate de una operación concluida entre vosotros sin intermediarios, entonces, no hay inconveniente en que no lo pongáis por escrito. Pero tomad testigos cuando os vendáis algo. Y que no se moleste al escribano ni al testigo. Si lo hacéis, cometeréis una iniquidad. Temed a Dios os instruye. Dios es omnisciente”.

Muhammad el Profeta del Islam explicando este versículo, en Saђiђ Al- Bujari, ђadiz 2658 dice:“La mujer la falta cerebro”.

El tema de la Menstruación, es muy interesante, según el Corán (Sira 2:222) “Te preguntan acerca de la menstruación. Di: Es un mal. ¡Manteneos, pues, aparte de las mujeres durante la menstruación y no os acerquéis a ellas hasta que se hayan purificado! Y cuando se hayan purificado, id a ellas como Alá os ha ordenado. Alá ama a quienes se arrepienten. Y ama a quienes se purifican”, los hombres no deben o no se permite a un hombre acercarse a una mujer con el periodo o tiene la regla o la menstruación.

Ahora bien, como demuestra, Al Bujari en su libro; Sahih Al Bujari, el libro de la Menstruación; los dichos N. 294 a N. 333 “El Profeta, solía acostarse con sus esposas cuando estaban en el periodo de la menstruación. A Muhammad, le gustaba oler la sangre de la menstruación, cuando Aisha (su esposa predilecta) tenía la menstruación, él solía poner su cabeza entre sus muslos y recitaba el Corán. Aisha dijo: en muchas ocasiones, Muhammad cuando quería bañarse, me llamaba y me mandaba a desnudar para bañarme con él, algunas veces tenía la regla, y él lo sabía, nos bañamos juntos y nos hacíamos el amor. Lo mismo hacia con sus otras esposas como Um Salma, Zaynab y otras”. En que quedamos.

-En Saђiђ Al- Bujari, ђadiz (Dicho) 3237, leemos: “Dijo Muhammad; si un hombre llama su mujer para acostarse con ella y ella niega y el hombre se va a dormir descontento, la maldad de los ángeles será sobre la mujer toda la noche hasta que se pide la mujer el perdón al marido, a continuación satisfacer los deseos sexuales del hombre, porque la mujer esta criada para cumplir todos los deseos del hombre”. Aplicando el texto coránico (Sura 2:223) “Vuestras mujeres son campo labrado para vosotros. ¡Venid, pues, a vuestro campo como queráis, haciendo preceder algo para vosotros mismos! ¡Temed a Alá y sabed que Le encontraréis! ¡Y anuncia la buena nueva a los creyentes!”.

Por esa razón, el Corán también anima a los hombres a pegar sus mujeres o sus esposas, que no obedecen el hombre, como muestra (Sura 4:34) “Los hombres tienen autoridad sobre las mujeres en virtud de la preferencia que Alá ha dado a unos más que a otros y de los bienes que gastan. Las mujeres virtuosas son devotas y cuidan, en ausencia de sus maridos, de lo que Alá manda que cuiden. ¡Amonestad a aquéllas de quienes temáis que se rebelen, dejadlas solas en el lecho, pegadles! Si os obedecen, no os metáis más con ellas. Alá es excelso, grande”.

En Sunan Ibn Maŷa, ђadiz (Dicho) N. 2456, leemos: “Un día un hombre preguntó a Muhammad ¿Qué derechos tiene la mujer respeto al hombre? Muhammad le contestó: darla a comer cuando tu comes, y vestirla cuando tu te vistes, no la pegues a la cara, pégala en otros sitios ocultos del cuerpo, para que no se nota”.

Por otro lado, en el Islam; el divorcio debe de producir por una decisión propia del marido o por un consentimiento mutuo.

Según algunos exegesis musulmanes (no según el Corán), el sexo anal dentro del matrimonio, esta prohibido, por lo tanto, es la única excusa de que la mujer puede pedir el divorcio, si muestra que su marido la obliga a practicar este tipo de relaciones sexuales.

Los demás a petición del marido ante un Imam o Cadí. Aplicando el texto coránico (Sura 2:223) “Vuestras mujeres son campo labrado para vosotros. ¡Venid, pues, a vuestro campo como queráis, haciendo preceder algo para vosotros mismos! ¡Temed a Alá y sabed que Le encontraréis! ¡Y anuncia la buena nueva a los creyentes!”.

Pero según los sabios e intérpretes musulmanes; el divorcio es definitivo, si ha sido pronunciado tres veces, el marido no puede volver a tomar a su mujer más. Solo en el caso de que la mujer se haya casado con otro hombre y se ha cumplido con él, en el intervalo de la separación. Aplicando el texto coránico (Sura 2:226-230) “Quienes juren no acercarse a sus mujeres tienen de plazo cuatro meses. Si se retractan,… Alá es indulgente, misericordioso. Si se deciden por el repudio,…Alá todo lo oye, todo lo sabe. Las repudiadas deberán esperar tres menstruaciones. No les es lícito ocultar lo que Alá ha creado en su seno si es que creen en Alá y en el último Día. Durante esta espera, sus esposos tienen pleno derecho a tomarlas de nuevo si desean la reconciliación. Ellas tienen derechos equivalentes a sus obligaciones, conforme al uso, pero los hombres están un grado por encima de ellas. Alá es poderoso, sabio. El repudio se permite dos veces. Entonces, o se retiene a la mujer tratándola como se debe o se la deja marchar de buena manera. No os es lícito recuperar nada de lo que les disteis, a menos que las dos partes teman no observar las leyes de Alá. Y, si teméis que no observen las leyes de Alá, no hay inconveniente en que ella obtenga su libertad indemnizando al marido. Éstas son las leyes de Alá, no las violéis. Quienes violan las leyes de Alá, ésos son los impíos. Si la repudia, ésta ya no le será permitida sino después de haber estado casada con otro. Si este último la repudia, no hay inconveniente en que aquéllos vuelvan a reunirse, si creen que observarán las leyes de Alá. Éstas son las leyes de Alá. Las explica a gente que sabe”.

Más información:

Raad Salam Naaman, Desvelando el Islam, Editorial Monte Riego, León- España, 2012.

Raad Salam Naaman, Todo sobre el Islam, Editorial Monte Riego, España- León, 2013.

———

http://www.religionenlibertad.com/el-matrimonio-y-el-divorcio-en-el-islam-29496.htm

Estado Islámico corta las manos a tres mujeres por usar teléfonos móviles

Posted on


Estado Islámico corta las manos a tres mujeres por usar teléfonos móviles

 14 feb 2015  | Última actualización: 14 feb 2015
Estado Islámico corta las manos a tres mujeres por usar teléfonos móvilesREUTERS/Stringer

Según una fuente local, milicianos del Estado Islámico les han cortado las manos a tres mujeres y han dado latigazos a varios hombres por usar teléfonos móviles en una ciudad iraquí.

Una fuente local de la provincia iraquí de Nineveh ha comunicado que en la ciudad de Mosul, milicianos del Estado Islámico les han cortado las manos a tres mujeres, sin formular cargos. Del mismo modo han dado latigazos a cinco hombres por usar teléfonos móviles para contactar con sus parientes, informa el portal de noticias Iraqi News.

Asimismo, la fuente, que ha preferido permanecer en el anonimato, ha añadido que el “Estado Islámico le dijo a la gente de Mosul que le daría 30 látigos a cualquier persona a la que se encuentre utilizando un teléfono móvil”.

—————–

http://actualidad.rt.com/actualidad/166403-estado-islamico-cortar-manos-mujeres

La Lapidación de Soraya M. y la Hipocresía Liberal

Posted on Actualizado enn


La Lapidación de Soraya M. y la Hipocresía Liberal

Por Pablo Santomauro

Soraya

Amigo lector, le instamos para que vaya a ver la película The Stoning of Soraya M. (título en inglés), o de lo contrario, a comprar el DVD cuando esté disponible. La historia se desarrolla en Irán, el paraíso de las mujeres, y muestra el verdadero rostro del Islam, “la fuerza retrograda” como le llamó Churchill. Ya a estas alturas usted debe conocer de qué se trata la película, a menos que haya estado mirando exclusivamente el canal del clima (The Weather Channel) por los dos últimos meses, pero en síntesis digamos que la producción está basada en el libro del mismo nombre, el cual relata la nauseabunda historia que culmina con el apedreamiento de una mujer acusada injustamente de adulterio. Lo que resta credibilidad a la historia es que todos sabemos que los musulmanes tratan a sus mujeres como Aladín trataba a la princesa Jazmín, ¿verdad? ¿Acaso no tenemos las inspiradas palabras del noble Corán que dan mandamiento de pegarle a las esposas que tienen tendencia a rebelarse (Corán 4:34)? Después de todo, los esposos debemos tener el derecho de disciplinar a nuestra media naranja. ¿Es eso mucho pedir?

Ironías a un lado, el film describe una realidad actual en los países donde rige el Islam, realidad que comprende el maltrato despiadado a las mujeres, algo aceptado a través de los siglos por generaciones de hombres que han sido transformados en bestias insensibles despojados de raciocinio por la religión del Islam. La lapidación de Soraya M. no fue un hecho aislado, sino uno de los muchos casos que son el pan de cada día en las naciones musulmanas, de los cuales unos pocos salen a luz. Claro que existen variantes. En julio de 2008, los hombres de una aldea “conservadora” de Pakistán le dispararon a cinco mujeres, tres de ellas adolescentes, y luego las enterraron cuando aun respiraban. ¿El delito? Haber desafiado al concejo tribal negándose a someterse a casamientos arreglados y expresar su deseo de escoger sus propios esposos [1]. El asesinato múltiple continúa impune debido a la inacción o complicidad de las autoridades. A principios de este año un hombre jordano asesinó de múltiples puñaladas a su hermana para salvar el honor de la familia [2]. Este tipo de ejecución es común en las villas de Jordania donde padres o hermanos matan a sus hijas o hermanos para salvar el honor de la familia por tan solo sospechar que la mujer tiene o tuvo relaciones ilícitas. Se les conoce con el nombre de “asesinatos de honor”. En muchos países los culpables son exonerados o en el peor de los casos reciben ligeras sentencias al amparo de leyes que justifican estas atrocidades. El pastor Daniel Brito mencionó en un escrito anterior el caso reciente de “una muchacha de 13 años de edad, [que] fue acusada de adulterio y apedreada delante de mil personas en el país de Sudán. La muchacha, había sido violada por tres hombres, pero en el mundo musulmán, cuando una joven es violada, su palabra no vale nada”[3]. Ayse Onal, un reconocido periodista turco, escribió en su libro “Honour Killing: Stories of Men who Kill ”, que solamente en Turquía los asesinatos de honor ocurren a un promedio de uno por día. Entre 2000 y 2005 se reportaron 1806 casos. [4]

Los ejemplos pueden continuar ad infinitum. Nos preguntamos por qué habiendo tanto material para denunciar los horrores del Islam, Hollywood no ha producido un solo film en la materia. Eso sí, cuando se trata de basurear a los EEUU, Hollywood cuenta con directores como Paul Haggis, Brian de Palma y Kimberley Pierce, quienes entregan films como “In the Valley of Elah”, “Redacted”, y “Stop-Loss” respectivamente, en los cuales los villanos son el gobierno, la CIA y por supuesto, los soldados americanos. Actores como Mat Damon, George Clooney, Martin Sheen, Alec Baldwin, Sean Penn, Scarlet Johansson y otros, no pierden oportunidad de acusar al gobierno de maldades en materia de política nacional e internacional, ni de actuar en películas anti-guerra y de corte liberal.

Parecería que el péndulo del estereotipo del mal para Hollywood oscila entre los conservadores tanto políticos como religiosos y las corporaciones. ¡Ah, se me olvidaban los Nazis! No que estos últimos no hayan sido la encarnación primordial del mal, pero para Hollywood no representa ningún riesgo producir material en el tema. Otra cosa sería hacer películas sobre las brutalidades del Islam. Yo creo que hay un elemento de cobardía detrás de todo esto. Pensar que de ser posible, estos personajes de Hollywood serían los primeros en ser ejecutados si los Khomeinis, Bin Ladens, Hezbollahs y Talibanes del mundo tomaran control del país. Misterios de la mente liberal.

¿Y qué de las organizaciones feministas en América y Europa? ¿Por qué ese silencio ante las atrocidades contra las mujeres detrás de la “cortina de piedra y arena”?  Parece que sus prioridades están en la defensa del aborto y los “derechos” de las lesbianas. ¿Dónde están las académicas feministas? Un sondeo de sus causas nos muestra que sus intereses giran en torno a las oportunidades políticas, la nueva tecnología médica y las implicaciones relacionadas con las mujeres, la política de la moda y la respuesta de las mujeres ante los cambios climáticos. Ni mención sobre los asesinatos de honor ni de las miles y miles de mujeres que son rutinariamente golpeadas, violadas, encarceladas o lapidadas, usualmente con la aprobación tácita o explícita de los gobiernos islámicos [5].

¿Mencioné a “Amnistía Internacional”, o Amnesia Internacional como yo la llamo? ¿No? La organización que hoy en día es una herramienta de la izquierda disfrazada de defensores de derechos humanos, ha presentado una crítica de La Lapidación de Soraya M. donde literalmente se defiende al régimen de los Ayatollahs, se calumnia la película y se le llama “sensacionalista”. Amnistía Internacional aduce que el film promueve la discriminación contra el pueblo iraní en general, y además argumenta que ya hay organizaciones que están luchando contra barbaridades como la lapidación [6]. La verdad es que no podemos entender cómo estos argumentos puede llevar a la conclusión de que el film no es necesario.

Me permito incluir en la galería de hipócritas miserables a UNIFEM. Dudamos que la película sea exhibida en la próxima conferencia de la Comisión para el Estatus de las Mujeres (de la ONU). UNIFEM recibe millones de dólares provenientes de los regímenes islámicos para hacer la vista gorda.

En el área de la mediática, Stephen Holden, escribiendo para el súper liberal New York Times, no está muy feliz con la producción tampoco. En su comentario se nota su desconformidad en forma subyacente y su idea particular de que detrás del film se mueven fuerzas conservadoras [7]. La prensa en los EEUU, controlada hoy en día por liberales de todos los colores, ha visto la película a través del mismo prisma, con algunas honrosas excepciones. Pero en general, apedrearon el film.

Repugnado por la hipocresía y la inmoralidad de los liberales, exhorto al público cristiano a apoyar producciones como La Lapidación de Soraya M. – De ser posible editar o censurar unas pocas palabras obscenas (entiendo que no es fácil), las iglesias deberían planificar a los efectos de exhibirla en noches especiales, una vez que el DVD esté a la venta. Claro, los pastores deben aclarar que el film en ciertos diálogos y monólogos da a entender que Alá es un dios real, pero debemos ser flexibles porque la cultura en que la historia se desarrolla es musulmana. La exhibición de la película será más efectiva que mil lecciones sobre el Islam. <>

———————

notas

1) http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26469519/

2) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/04/12/jordan-honor-killing-man-_n_185977.html

3) http://pastordanielbrito.wordpress.com/2009/07/26/la-lapidacion-de-soraya-m/

4) http://www.jihadwatch.org/archives/027018.php

5) http://www.jihadwatch.org/archives/027018.php

6) http://blog.amnestyusa.org/tag/the-stoning-of-soraya-m/

7) http://movies.nytimes.com/2009/06/26/movies/26stoning.html

Denuncian que Cuba facilita arribo de islamistas a Latinoamérica

Posted on


Denuncian que Cuba facilita arribo de islamistas a Latinoamérica

Diario de Cuba

11/25/2014 10:10

cubaislamistas

Cuba estaría respaldando el trabajo a favor del islam radical del gobernador del estado de Aragua, Tarek Zaidan El Aissami. LEO RAMIREZ AFP/Getty Images

El director del Center for a Secure Free Society, Joseph Humire, ha denunciado que La Habana ha facilitado servicios de inteligencia a una red, con epicentro en Venezuela, dedicada a facilitar la llegada de militantes islamistas a América Latina.

En una entrevista con la periodista de The Wall Street Journal Mary Anastasia O’Grady, Humire, analista y coeditor de Iran’s Strategic Penetration of Latin America, señala que Cuba estaría respaldando el trabajo a favor del islam radical del gobernador del estado de Aragua, Tarek Zaidan El Aissami.

Según O’Grady, El Aissami fue criado en Venezuela por un padre musulmán nacido en Líbano y adoctrinado por el movimiento de izquierda Utopía 78 en la Universidad de los Andes.

La periodista cita un informe de junio del 2014 del centro que dirige Humire, en el que “autoridades regionales de inteligencia” establecen el vínculo entre la red islamista y Cuba.

Según sus informaciones, se cree que la oficina de El Aissami utilizó tecnología de la información desarrollada por la Seguridad del Estado cubana para otorgarles nuevas identidades venezolanas que son extremadamente difíciles de rastrear a 173 personas del Medio Oriente.

El informe señala que entre “las personas de interés más notables” que recibieron documentos falsos de Caracas estaba Suleiman Ghani Abdul Waked, un importante miembro de la organización islamista libanesa Hezbolá.

El mismo informe, que cita entrevistas con autoridades de inteligencia latinoamericanas anónimas, sostiene que El Aissami ha construido “un conducto terrorista criminal que trae militantes islamistas a Venezuela y países circundantes, y envía fondos ilícitos de América Latina al Medio Oriente”.

El estado gobernado por El Aissami, Aragua, es además sede de Parchin Chemical Industries (PCI) y Qods Aviation, dos empresas de las fuerzas armadas iraníes que tienen sociedades con la industria militar venezolana.

PCI es fabricante de explosivos, munición y propulsores para misiles. Qods es productor de vehículos aéreos no tripulados. Ambas compañías han sido sancionadas por el Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas bajo la Resolución 1747, asegura O’Grady.

La periodista plantea los enlaces entre Irán, Venezuela y Cuba para cuestionar si es posible un cambio de política de EEUU hacia la Isla dado el aumento de la presión para que el gobierno norteamericano levante el embargo. Una medida que implicaría previamente que Cuba saliera de la lista de países patrocinadores del terrorismo.

O’Grady explica que Cuba “aplaude la intervención islámica” en América Latina, que ocurre desde hace años.

Según Humire, las etapas iniciales del proceso incluyeron agentes clandestinos que usaron mezquitas para hacer conexiones al interior de las comunidades musulmanas y luego aprovecharon esas relaciones para acceder a riqueza y ganar prominencia política.

Precisamente en los últimos días diversas informaciones han señalado que el gobierno cubano habría acordado la construcción de una mezquita en La Habana y que para ello incluso ya estaría asignada una parcela en La Habana Vieja.

Asimismo, en los lugares donde estas primeras incursiones han sido exitosas, señala Humire, Irán ha abierto embajadas y establecido acuerdos comerciales que permiten a los agentes crear negocios, que pueden ser utilizados como fachadas para operaciones encubiertas.

Según el artículo, que apareció el lunes en The Wall Street Journal, en Venezuela y Bolivia, Irán ha dado un paso más, “al desarrollar una presencia militar a través de acuerdos conjuntos en las industrias de defensa”.

————

http://www.elnuevoherald.com/noticias/mundo/america-latina/cuba-es/article4152094.html#emlnl=Bolet%c3%adn_noticias#storylink=cpy

Islam Timeline

Posted on Actualizado enn


Islam Timeline

Note: The following chronology follows the most widely accepted accounts of Islamic history. Because Islam  is the second largest religion in the world; its adherents are called Muslims. Islam began in Arabia when Muhammad, Islam’s final and most important prophet, proclaimed that the angel Gabriel had visited him and instructed him to preach on behalf of the one God, Allah. The revelations Muhammad claimed to have received were later recorded and compiled in the Quran , Islam’s most sacred text. Muhammad moved from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE, an event Muslims refer to as the Hij has often functioned as a religio-political entity, its history is not limited to the development of its scriptures, doctrines, and religious practices but also includes important facts regarding political leadership, geographic boundaries and expansion, and military actions.

Date (CE) Event
c. 570 Birth of MuhammadMuhammadMuhammadMuhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah (570 – 632 CE), commonly known as Muhammad or “the Prophet,” is the founder of Islam and is considered by Muslims to be Allah’s messenger and final prophet.MuhammadArabic, Muḥammad, “praised”
founder of Islam in 613 CE
View Dictionary

Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam, is born into the QurayshQurayshArabic, proper name
a powerful Arabic tribe that controlled Mecca at the time of Muhammad’s birth
View Dictionary
tribe1The Quraysh were a powerful Arabic tribe comprised of merchants who controlled Mecca at the time of Muḥammad’s birth. The tribe was divided into various clans; Muḥammad was born into the Hashemite clan. in Mecca.
610 First Revelations of the QuranQuranThe Quran The Quran, also written Qur’ān or Koran, constitutes Islam’s most sacred and important religious text. Muslims accept that the Quran holds the literal word of God, or Allah, revealed to the Prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632 CE through the archangel Gabriel. The revelations and inspirations that now make up the Quran were memorized by Muhammad and transmitted orally to his followers through recitation, sometimes recorded by scribes. After his death, all of the revelations were recorded and coQuranArabic, Qur’ān, “recitation”
the most sacred text of Islam, believed to contain the literal word of Allah revealed to Muhammad
View Dictionary

Muhammad is believed to have received his first revelations and his calling as God’s2Arabic, Allāh messenger in a cave near Mecca. These revelations would continue throughout his life and eventually be recorded in the Quran, Islam’s sacred scripture.
613-622 Muhammad’s Public Ministry
Muhammad begins to preach monotheismMonotheismGreek monos, “single, one” and Greek, theos, “god, deity.”
Strictly speaking, monotheism is the belief in a single divinity. Religious traditions that practice this belief are classified as “monotheistic.” While a majority of the people in the world follow monotheistic traditions, there are very few monotheistic religions in the world. It should be noted that some monotheistic traditions also posit the existence of other divinities or semi-divine figures. Despite this, these traditions still classify themselves as monotheistic.
View Dictionary
3Muḥammad’s teachings were initially directed at polytheistic Arabic tribes who Muḥammad felt had abandoned the true, monotheistic religion taught by previous prophets such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. In this respect, Islam, Judaism, and Christianity share a similar heritage and deity. and gains a few followers. However, he is largely rejected by the polytheistic culture of Mecca.
619 Deaths of KhadijahKhadijahKhadijah Introduction Khadijah bint Khuwaylid (c. 555 – 619 CE) was the first wife of Muhammad. The marriage between Muhammad and Khadijah helped to establish a stronger social and political position for the Prophet in Mecca. Khadijah was the widow of a wealthy merchant when she met Muhammad, whom she hired as a trade representative. The two married shortly there after and had six children including Fatimah, another important woman in the history of Islam. The Prophets Mosque in Medina, Saudi ArabiKhadijahArabic, Khadījah, “premature daughter”
the first wife and strongest supporter of Muhammad until her death circa 619 CE
View Dictionary
 and Abu Talib

Khadijah, Muhammad’s first wife, and his uncle Abu Talib die the same year. Both were significant figures in Muhammad’s life and sources of protection from hostile Meccans.
622 The HijraHijraArabic, “departure”
the migration of Muhammad and his followers to Medina from Mecca in 622 CE
View Dictionary

As persecution in Mecca intensifies, Muhammad moves to YathribYathribplacename
the city to which Muḥammad and his followers moved when expelled from Mecca in 622 CE
View Dictionary
(modern-day MedinaMedinafrom Arabic al-Madīna, “town”
the city to which Muḥammad and his followers moved when expelled from Mecca in 622 CE
Known as Yathrib during the time of MuḥammadView Dictionary) with his followers. This move, referred to as Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendarIslamic CalendarIslamic Calendar The Islamic calendar begins on July 16, 622 CE, the date Muhammad left Mecca for present-day Medina.Medina was known as Yathrib during Muhammad’s time. His move from Mecca to Medina is referred to as the Hijrah. This year is referred to as AH 1 (After Hijrah). The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar (based on the phases of the moon) composed of twelve months and totaling 354 days. This makes it eleven days shorter than the Gregorian calendar, so the years of the separate calendars do not al and of Islam’s establishment as a major religious and political force in Medina.
622 Marriage of Muhammad and Aisha
Muhammad marries Aisha, daughter of Abu BakrAbu BakrAbu Bakr Abu BakrAbū Bakr (c. 573-634 CE) was a close friend, supporter, and adviser of Muhammad. He succeeded the Prophet as leader of the Islamic community after Muhammad’s death in 632 CE. As one of Islam’s first converts, Abu Bakr held a place of special significance within the Islamic community and was crucial to its establishment. It was through his influence that many early Muslims were converted. During the last years of Muhammad’s life, Abu Bakr took on increasingly significant roles, incluAbu BakrArabic, Abū Bakr, “father of the young camel”
first caliph of Islam and successor to Muhammad
View Dictionary
.4Abū Bakr is thought to be the first adult male convert to Islam. He was a strong supporter and close adviser to Muḥammad and succeeded him as the leader of Islam.
622 Prophet’s MosqueMosquefrom Arabic masjid, “place of prostration”
sacred edifice for worship in Islam
View Dictionary

Construction begins for a mosque at Muhammad’s home in Medina. This mosque expands throughout the years, eventually holds the tomb of Muhammad, and becomes one of Islam’s most sacred sites.
c. 622 Constitution of Medina
Shortly after Muhammad’s move to Medina, he drafted a charter that established Islam as a political entity as well as a religious body. This charter and various agreements made with surrounding tribes and existing religious groups become the Constitution of Medina, the foundation of Islam as a powerful religio-political body.
624 Battle of Badr
Muslims gain a significant military victory over a larger Meccan army, attributing their success to divine intervention.
628 Treaty of Hudaybiyah
A truce between Muslims and the Quraysh of Mecca grants permission for Muslims to visit the Ka’bah, a shrine located in Mecca and Islam’s holiest site.
630 Mecca Conquered
After breaches in the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, Muslims conquer Mecca. They clear the Ka’bah, a religious shrine from pre-Islamic times, of the polytheistic idols held there and dedicate the site for the worshipWorshipOld English, worðscip or wurðscip, “the condition of being worthy, honor, renown.”
Worship is the general term for any action of religious devotion performed towards a deity or other divine being. Such acts were historically performed in order to demonstrate the worthiness of the religious adherent to the divinity in question. Acts of worship vary depending on the religious tradition, but frequently include practices such as prayer, meditation, pilgrimage, ritual ceremonies, religious services, the presentation of offerings, and other respectful actions.
View Dictionary
of the one God.
632 Death of Muhammad
Muhammad dies at his home in Medina and is buried there.
632 Abu Bakr Becomes First CaliphCaliphfrom Arabic khalīfah, “successor”
the political ruler of the Islamic empire
View Dictionary
of Islam

After Muhammad’s death, uncertainty and disagreement regarding his successor ends with the appointment of his close adviser Abu Bakr as caliph, the leader of the religio-political body of Islam.
632-661 The RashidunRashidunArabic, Rāshidūn, “rightly guided”
the name given to the first four caliphs of Islam
View Dictionary
CaliphateCaliphatecaliphate A caliphate refers to a religio-political state uniting Muslims under a single ruler, or caliph. At Muhammad’s death, no clear succession had been established. The Prophet’s closest advisor was chosen by the ummah as leader of the community with the title “caliph.” Three more successors were chosen by the ummah, and this time was known as the Golden Age of Pure Islam. In the following centuries, several families and tribes ruled over an Islamic Empire that, at its height, extended from the InCaliphatefrom Arabic khalīfah, “successor” + Latin -ate, “office”
the religio-political state uniting Muslims under a single ruler, or the office of that ruler
View Dictionary

The four caliphs to succeed Muhammad as the leader of the Islamic community were all important companions of the Prophet, and they are known as the “Rightly Guided Caliphs,” making up the Rashidun Caliphate. This time is considered the golden age of Islam, when its leaders adhered closely to the practices established by Muhammad.
634 ‘Umar Becomes Second Caliph
After the death of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar (c. 591-644) succeeds him as caliph of Islam. During his reign, the Islamic empire undergoes an enormous military expansion.
635-641 Significant Expansion of Islamic Empire
Muslim armies conquer Syria, Persia, Alexandria, and Jerusalem.
644 Uthman Becomes Third Caliph
‘Umar is assassinated by a Persian slave. Uthman succeeds him as Islam’s leader.
c. 650 Compilation of the Quran
Muhammad’s orally transmitted revelations are collected and recorded in a single authorized version of the Quran.
656 ‘Ali Becomes Fourth Caliph
Uthman is assassinated by dissenting Muslims and succeeded by ‘Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law.
656-661 First Civil War
‘Ali encounters opposition to his rule. He defeats opposing armies, but the factions involved in the conflict later split into two distinct sects, SunniSunniArabic, Sunnī, “people of the tradition”
the largest division within Islam
View Dictionary
Muslims and shi’iShi’iArabic, Shī’ī, “people of the party [of Alī]”
the smaller of the two major branches of Islam
View Dictionary
Muslims.
656 The Battle of Camel
‘Ali faces an opposing army led by Aisha, widow of Muhammad and daughter of the first caliph Abu Bakr. Aisha’s army is defeated, and she is allowed to return home. The battle is supposedly named for the camel upon which Aisha rode.
657 Battle of Siffin
‘Ali faces an army led by Mu’awiyah, a relative of Uthman who felt that ‘Ali had not made sufficient attempts to find and punish those responsible for the death of the previous caliph. ‘Ali’s army was on the point of victory when Mu’awiyah instructed his army to fasten pages of the Quran to the points of their spears. Unwilling to attack under such circumstances, ‘Ali agreed to have the conflict settled by arbitration, a decision that angered many of his followers and ultimately led to his death and the end of the Rashudin Caliphate.
661 Mu’awiyah Becomes Caliph
‘Ali is assassinated by dissenting Muslims, and Mu’awiyah seizes power, ending the Rashidun Caliphate and establishing a family dynasty.
661-750 The UmayyadUmayyadArabic, “sons of Umayya”
the name assumed by the second caliphate of Islam
View Dictionary
Caliphate

The Umayyad dynasty established by Mu’awiyah rules for nearly a century from their capital at Damascus. The Islamic Empire continues to expand through military conquests during their reign.
680 Death of HusaynHusaynArabic, Ḥusayn, derivative of Arabic Hasan, “the good”
son of ‘Ali and Fatimah, grandson of Muhammad, and the third Imam of Shi’i Islam
View Dictionary

Husayn, ‘Ali’s son and Muhammad’s grandson, challenges the rule of Yazid I, accusing the caliph of corruption and insisting that proper leadership of Islam belongs to the descendents of Muhammad. He and his small band of followers are massacred near Karbala (present-day Iraq), further dividing the factions that would later become Sunni Muslims and Shi’i Muslims.
691 The Dome of the RockDome of the RockDome of the Rock The Dome of the Rock lies near Masjid Al-Aqsa atal-Haram al-SharifOutside Islam, this site is also known as the Temple Mount. in Jerusalem. The rock over which the shrine is built is believed to be the site where Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son at God’s command,Quran 37:102-103 and many Muslims believe it is also from this site that Muhammad ascended into heaven during the miraj, the second part of his Night Journey. The Dome of the Rock was completed in 692, making it Isl
The Dome of the Rock is built in Jerusalem. It is the oldest Islamic monument, one of Jerusalem’s and Islam’s most recognizable structures.
c. 700 Rise of SufismSufismSufism Although numerous Sufi orders exist, reliable estimates of Muslims who practice Sufism are extremely difficult to obtain. Sufis can be Sunni, Shi’a, or neither, and they are distinguished more by their mystic approach to Islam than adherence to an official system of doctrine or practice. This makes it difficult not only to estimate worldwide adherents to Sufism, but also, in some cases, to identify Sufis at all since they do not comprise a separate sect within Islam.1The term Sufism most likelySufismfrom Arabic, suf, “wool”
Islamic movement that emphasizes mysticism as a pathway to more fully understand God
View Dictionary

Muslim ascetics lay the foundations of Sufism, a mystical movement within Islam that focuses on personal experience with God.
705-715 Umayyad Mosque
The Umayyads convert the Christian Cathedral of St. John in Damascus into a Muslim mosque. Today the mosque is one of Islam’s oldest and most sacred sites.
711 Conquest of Hispania
Muslims cross the Strait of Gibraltar and invade the Iberian Peninsula. They control large portions of the peninsula for centuries, living with Jews and Christians and shaping Spanish history..
732 Battle of Tours
The Muslim advance into present-day France via the Iberian Peninsula is halted by the armies of Frankish leader Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours.
744-750 Third Civil War
Dissenting Muslims claiming familial ties to Muhammad challenge the ruling Umayyads. Skirmishes lead to a full military rebellion and the eventual defeat of the Umayyad Caliphate.
750-1258 Abbasid Caliphate
The family of Abbasids, who take their name from Muhammad’s uncle al-‘Abbas, establish Baghdad as their capital after the overthrow of the Umayyads and appoint Abu al-‘Abbas al-Saffah as first caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate. They rule for over five centuries, bringing Islam to the height of its civilization.
750-850 Four Schools of Islamic Religious Law
Four major schools of Islamic law are established: HanafiHanafiArabic, Ḥanafī, “highly praised”
one of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, named for Abu Hanifah
View Dictionary
, MalikiMalikiArabic, Mālikī, “king”
one of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, named for Malik ibn Anas
View Dictionary
, Sāfi’ī, and HanbaliHanbaliArabic, proper name
one of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, named for Ahmad ibn Hanbal
View Dictionary
These four schools are established by Muslim religious scholars rather than the caliphs. They become the most widely accepted interpretations of Islam by Sunni Muslims.
756-1031 The Umayyad Emirate Rises
The Umayyad Emirate takes power in Cordova, Spain. Trade and Muslim culture prospered in the Iberian peninsula during this period.
765 Death of Ja’far
Ja’far al-SadiqJa’far al-SadiqArabic, Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq, “stream” + “the friend”
founder of the Ja’fari school of religious law in Shi’i Islam and the sixth imam of Shi’ism
View Dictionary
, sixth imamImamArabic, imām, “one who stands in front”
1) leader of congregational prayers, 2) spiritual leader of an Islamic community, 3) title given to the first leaders of Shī’ī Islam, beginning with Alī
View Dictionary
 of Shi’i Islam and influential religious teacher, dies. Disputes over his proper successor lead to a split among Shi’ah—Isma’ili and Twelvers.
c. 765 Ja’fariJa’fariArabic, Jaʿfarī, “stream”
the dominant school of religious law in Shi’i Islam
View Dictionary
School of Religious Law

After the death of Ja’far, his theological followers develop a school of religious law based on his teachings. The Ja’fari school becomes the most widely accepted school of Islamic law for Shi’i Muslims.
c. 768 First Written Biography of Muhammad
The first written biography of Muhammad is recorded by Muhammad Ibn Ishaq. This first written record of the Prophet’s life was followed by numerous biographical accounts.
786 Great Mosque of Cordova
The Umayyad Emirate constructs the Great Mosque of Cordova (in present-day Spain) under the direction of ‘Abd al-Rahman I.
850-875 Collection of HadithHadithArabic, Ḥadīth, “sayings”
accounts of the sayings and actions attributed to Muhammad and his companions, used as a supplement to the Qur’an for understanding the doctrines of Islam
View Dictionary

Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-BukhariMuhammad ibn Isma’il al-BukhariMuhammad Ibn Isma'il al-Bukhari Muhammad ibn Isma’il ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Mughira al-Bukhari (810 – 870 CE) was an important Muslim scholar who compiled the most authoritative collection of hadith. Al-Bukhari was born in Bukhara (modern-day Uzbekistan) but made a pilgrimage to Mecca when he was sixteen to better understand and study hadith, records of the sayings and actions of Muhammad. He continued traveling to meet and study with the prominent hadith scholars of his day, and he eventually compiled into a single collection w and Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, important scholars of the accounts of Muhammad’s sayings and actions, collect, authenticate, and compile hadith7Ḥadīth are the recorded accounts of the actions and sayings of Muhammad and his companions. They are important in Islam as the records of the proper practice of Islam. into the first two authentic collections.
899 Rise of Qarmatians
A split among Isma’ili Shi’ah leads to the rise of the Qarmatian faction. Qarmatians actively revolt against the ruling Abbasids.
920-1171 The FatimidFatimidArabic, Fāṭimid, from Arabic proper name Fatimah
the name given to a Shi’i dynasty in Egypt during the 10th-12th centuries CE
View Dictionary
Dynasty

Isma’ili Shi’ah take control over parts of northern Africa and establish a community independent from Sunn? caliphs. After founding Cairo and establishing the city as its capital, the Fatimid Dynasty rules for over two centuries.
929 The Black Stone is Stolen
The Qarmatians, members of a Shi’ite sect, sack Mecca. During this time, they take the sacred Black Stone from the Ka’bah.
945 Islamic Rule Decentralized
A Shi’ite band invades Baghdad undermining the Abbasid caliphs, who have become little more than figureheads. Until the 16th century, the rule of Islam is decentralized with different sects, regions, and rulers.
946 (or 951) The Black Stone is Returned
The Qarmatians restore the Black Stone to the Holy Ka’bah.
970 Al-AzharAl-AzharArabic, “most resplendent”
the name of an important and influential Muslim university in Cairo
View Dictionary
Founded.

Al-Azhar is founded by Muslims in Cairo, Egypt. It has the designation of being one of the oldest centers for learning in the Middle East.
997 India Raided by Muslims
Mahmoud of Ghazni, called the “Sword of Islam,” led a series of raids on northern India. He destroys various temples, statues, and other religious art. This is one of the main roots of anti-Muslim thought among Hindus.
1095-1099 The First Crusade is Launched
Christians engage in the first crusade against the Muslims. The Christians eventually accomplish their goal and recapture Jerusalem for Christendom.
1100 The Muslim Population Rises
The Muslims are weakened by internal conflicts as well as the crusade. Despite this loss, Muslims now make up roughly 5% of the world’s population.
1145 The Second Crusade is Launched
The second crusade is launched. The Muslims win by resisting a Christian siege of Damascus.
1187 The Third Crusade is Launched
The Muslims recapture Jerusalem from the Christians. The third crusade is launched.
1229 Jerusalem Returns to Christian Control
Jerusalem is restored to Christians by the Kurdish sultan, al-Malik al Kamil. He forges a temporary alliance with the Christians.
1245 Jerusalem Recaptured
There was not enough territory near Jerusalem that was controlled by Christians. As it was difficult to defend, Muslims quickly recaptured Jerusalem.
1258 The Mongols Invade the Middle East
Mongol armies conquer Baghdad, almost ending the Abbasid Caliphate. Three years later, their rule resumes, now based in Mamluk, Egypt. Abbasid rule lasts until 1519 when the OttomanOttomanTurkish, from Arabic ‘Uthman, “baby bustard”
Islamic empire in power from the 13th to 20th century CE
View Dictionary
Empire formally took over.
c. 1300 The Ottoman Empire is Founded
Osman I, a Muslim prince, consolidates power in Asia Minor. He establishes the Ottoman Empire, which exists until World War I.
1370-1401 The TimuridTimuridfrom Persian, proper name Timur
the name given to an Islamic empire beginning in the 14th century CE
View Dictionary
Empire is Founded

Seeking to restore the great Mongol Empire, Tamerlane establishes an empire in Persia, Iraq, and Syria. Although he was Muslim, it is unclear whether which sect he belonged to.
1501-1723 The SafavidSafavidPersian, proper name
name given to an Islamic empire in Persia from the 16th to 18th century CE
View Dictionary
Empire is Established

The Safavid Empire is founded in Persia by Shah Ismail I. The Twelver school of Shi’ite Islam is declared its official religion.
1517 Some Unity Restored to Islam
The Ottoman Sultan Selim I adopts the title of caliph. This restores a sense of unity to Islam, but not actual unity.
1750 The Wahhabi Movement Begins
The Wahhabi movement is founded by Muhammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab. It operates as an additional sect of Islam.
1914 Arab Nationalism
Secret Arab nationalist societies are formed.
1914 World War I
The Ottoman Empire enters World War I. By this point, it controls Anatolia, most of the Arabian peninsula, Egypt, and the Sudan.
1922 The Ottoman Empire Falls
The Ottoman Empire officially ends. Two years later, the office of caliph is abolished. Islam has no collective, official political identity, but Muslims dominate many secular states in northern Africa, the Near and Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Central and Southeast Asia.
1928 The Muslim Brotherhood is Founded
Hasan al-BannaHasan al-BannaHasan al-Banna Hasan al-Banna (1906 – 1949 CE) founded the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the most significant religious movements within Islam during the last century. Born near Alexandria, Egypt, al-Banna took interest in social issues from a young age. Dedicated to strengthening Islam spiritually, socially, and politically, he joined the Hasafiyah Sufi Welfare Society and began preaching in Ismailia. After gaining a few followers, he founded the Muslim Brothers in 1928, an organization dedicated to supportingHasan al-BannaArabic, Ḥasan al-Bannā, “the good” + proper name
founder of the Muslim Brotherhood
View Dictionary
founds the Muslim Brotherhood. It is a non-violent movement seeking to restore order in the Muslim world through the Quran and Sunni IslamSunni IslamSunni Islam Sunni Islam comprises the largest distinct branch within Islam, and, when classified as a distinct religious denomination, is one of the largest in the world. Some consider Sunnism to be the largest religious denomination, though accurate data that distinguish between Sunnis and Shi’a have been traditionally difficult to obtain. Still, overall numbers for worldwide Sunnis are generally accepted as reliable estimates. A 16th century painting depicts Abu Bakr stopping a Meccan mob .
1936 Muslim-Jewish Fighting in Palestine
Increased Jewish immigration leads to fighting in Palestine.
1945 Formation of the Arab League
The Arab League is formed to foster relations between Arabic countries and to safeguard their independence.
1947 Pakistan is Founded Muslim-majority area in India becomes Pakistan. Riots were caused as millions of Hindus moved to India proper and millions of Muslims moved to the newly established Pakistan.
1948 Israel is Founded
Creation of state of Israel leads to hostility between Muslims and Jews in Palestine. The Arab-Israeli War is fought that same year. As a result of the war, the “Green Line” is established to officially separate Israel from neighboring states.
1948-1949 Hasan al-Banna Killed
The Muslim Brotherhood is disbanded by the Prime Minister of Egypt. When the Prime Minister is assassinated, Hasan al-Banna, leader and founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, condemned this act, stating that terror is not an acceptable practice for the Brotherhood. Shortly after, al-Banna is also assassinated.
1965 Malcolm X Killed
Malcolm X, an African-American Muslim and civil rights activist is assassinated.
1979 The PahlaviPahlavifrom Persian Parthia, placename
name given to an Islamic empire in Iran during the 20th century CE
View Dictionary
Dynasty Falls

The Islamic Revolution ends the Pahlavi dynasty in Iran. This revolution was led by Islamic clergy who were irritated by the socioeconomic reform advocated by the Iranian Shah.
c. 2000 Muslim Population Increases
The Muslim population grows to 20% of world’s total. Islam thus becomes the second-largest religion in the world.

————-

http://www.faithology.com/timeline/islam

A timeline of Islam from a Christian perspective

Posted on


A timeline of Islam from a Christian perspective

timeline

This is intended to be a timeline of Islam from a Christian perspective. I will not agree with some of the things that Islam states such as that Ishmael was the one honored by God.
570: Mohammed is born in Mecca

573: Abu Bekr, Mohammed’s father in law and first Caliph of the Mohammedans is born

606: Fatima, Mohammed’s daughter is born

610: Mohammed has a vision on Mount Hira

615: Mohammed starts teaching his religion.

622: Mohammed is forced to flee Mecca for Medina. This event is called the Hegira and is year one on the calendar for Islam.

624: Mohammed marries Aisha who is the ten-year-old daughter of Abu Bekr.

625: Mohammed begins to dictate the Koran.

627: Mohammed’s enemies from Mecca besiege Medina and slaughter 700 Jews.

628: Mohammed captures Mecca and writes letters to all the rulers of the world explaining the principles of the Moslem faith.

632: Mohammed dies he is replaced by Abu Bekr who makes his capital Medina. Fatima also dies.

633: The religion of Mohammedanism as it is known spreads to Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria taking those cities from the Christians.

634: Abu Bekr dies and is replaced by Mohammed’s advisor, Omar I. Omar will spread the religion to Syria, Persia, and Egypt.

635: Damascus becomes the capital of the caliphs. Gaza is captured.

637: Jerusalem is conquered by the Arabs. Arabs are exposed to Islam.

638: Persia is besieged by the Moslems and asks for help from China.

639: The Arabs attack Armenia.

641: The Library of Alexandria is destroyed by the Arabs. Omar destroys the Persian Empire. The caliphs will rule the country till 1258 and Islam will replace the religion of Zoroaster.

642: The Eastern Roman Empire is weakened by the Arab conquest of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Syria. The Amr Mosque is built in Cairo.

643: The Muslims conquer Tripoli. The building of the Dome of the Rock begins.

646: The Byzantine Navy recaptures Alexandria.

649: The Arabs conquer Cyprus.

650: Caliph Othman puts the Koran into chapters. He also introduces the first organized news service.

652: The Arabs reach their southern limit at Aswan.

655: A Muslim fleet destroys the Byzantine fleet at Lycia.

656: Caliph Othman murdered.

658: The Omayyad’s rise to power in Damascus. They will become a family of Caliph’s in 660 and start a style of building.

661: Caliph Ali, nephew of Mohammed, murdered.

670: The Arabs attack Northern Africa.

671: “Greek Fire” is used against the Arabs during their siege of Constantinople.

674: The Arabs reach the Indus River.

679: Yezid I becomes Caliph.

683: Moawiyah II becomes Caliph.

684: Abdelmelik becomes Caliph.

693: Justinian II is defeated by the Arabs at Sebastopolis, Cilicia. Justinian was a Byzantine emperor who had invaded Arab territory for Christianity.

694: Arabs overrun Armenia

695: First Arab coinage.

697: The Arabs destroy Carthage.

700: The Arabs conquer Algiers and Christianity in North Africa is wiped out.

705: Walid I becomes Caliph. The Great Mosque is built in Damascus.

711: Spain with the exception of Asturias becomes an Arab state.

712: The Muslims conquer Samarkand, Seville, and an Indian state is established in Sind.

716: The Arabs conquer Lisbon.

717: Caliph Omar II grants tax exemption to all believers.

720: The Arabs cross into France. Yezid becomes Caliph. Abu Masa Dshaffar, who invents sulfuric acid, metric acid, aqua regia, and nitrate of silver, begins work.

724: Hisham becomes Caliph.

732: Charles Martel defeats the Arabs at Tours and stops the westward expansion of the religion.

744: Mervan II becomes Caliph he is the last of the Omayyads.

748: The Arab Navy is destroyed at Cyprus.

750: The Abbasids take over the Caliph office with their first Caliph Abu-al-Abbis. This year begins the study of medicine, astronomy, mathematics, optics, and chemistry in Arab Spain.

751: Western Asia embraces Islam. Islam fractions into four sects: Sunnites, Hafenities, Shafites, and Malikites.

754: Al Mansur becomes Caliph.

755: The Cordoba family takes the Caliph office until 1031.

763: Caliph al-Mansur moves the capital to Baghdad.

775: Caliph Mahdi starts an inquisition.

782: The Arab scientist Jabir starts to separate the study of Chemistry from alchemy.

809: Caliph al-Amin takes office.

810: Arab mathematician Muhammed ibn Musa al Chwarazmi starts to study equations which he calls Algebra.

826: The Arabs take Crete and plunder the Greek isles. The following year they will invade Sicily and Sardinia.

832: The Arabs invade Egypt

833: Samarra becomes the new capital of Islam.

838: Arabs sack Marseilles and settle in southern Italy. They also manage to defeat the Byzantine Army.

846: The Arabs sack Rome and damage the Vatican.

847: Mottawakkil becomes Caliph. He is the last Caliph of the whole Islam religion. After this the religion since it has split no longer listens to a caliph from another section.

850: The Arabs invent coffee.

858: Vikings are expelled by the Arabs from their lands.

869: Malta is captured by the Arabs.

880: The Arabs lose Italy.

888: The Arabs occupy Garde-Freinet on the coast of Provence.

900: Christians begin the reconquest of Spain from the Arabs. The Arab physician Rhases declares plague, consumption, smallpox, and rabies to be infectious diseases.

904: Salonika is sacked by Muslim pirates.

916: Arabs are expelled from central Italy.

935: Algiers is built by Arabs.

939: The Arabs lose Madrid.

961: The Arabs lose Crete

968: The Arabs found Cairo and lose Antioch.

975: Arabs lose Garde-Freinet

994: Arabs destroy the monastery of Monte Cassino. This is where the first rules for monks were established.

1004: Arabs sack Pisa.

1009: Muslims sack the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem.

1015: the Arabs conquer Sardinia.

1033: The Arabs lose Castile

1052: The Arabs lose Sardinia.

1075: The Turks, who are Muslim, take Syria and Palestine

1085: Toledo is taken from Arabs.

1086: The Muslims revive the Almoravid dynasty in a move to take back Spain.

1094: Valencia is taken from the Arabs.

1095: Pope Urban II starts The First Crusade.

1097: The Crusaders defeat the Turks at Dorylaeum, and take Nicaea.

1098: The Crusaders take Antioch

1099: The Crusaders take Jerusalem

1104: The Crusaders take Acre. This marks the end of the First Crusade

1125: The Almohades conquer Morocco.

1144: The Turks take Edessa.

1145: Pope Eugene III proclaims The Second Crusade.

1147: The Second Crusade ends in Asia Minor.

1176: General Saladin conquers Syria for the Arabs.

1183: General Saladin takes Aleppo.

1187: Saladin takes Jerusalem.

1189: Third Crusade is proclaimed.

1191: Richard I and his Crusade Army takes Cyprus

1193: Saladin dies and the Third Crusade ends

1200: Islam starts to replace Indian religions.

1202: The Fourth Crusade begins.

1203: The Arabs conquer Upper India.

1204: Crusaders take Constantinople and the Fourth Crusade is declared over.

1212: The Children’s Crusade begins.

1217: The Children’s Crusade fails to take Egypt and ends.

1228: The Sixth Crusade begins. It would end the next year with no gains.

1230: The Crusaders manage to bring Leprosy into Europe.

1236: The Arabs lose Cordoba to Castile.

1244: The Egyptians take Jerusalem.

1248: The Seventh Crusade begins. It ends in 1250 with the capture of Louis IX.

1258: The Mongols take Baghdad from the Arabs.

1270: The Eighth Crusade begins and ends the same year.

1291: The Muslim Mamelukes take Acre and end Christian rule in the East. The Crusade period is declared to be over by the Pope.

1333: Arabic Zenith in Granada

1352: Arabs explore the Sahara

1375: The Mamelukes take Sis and end Armenian independence.

1382: The Ottoman Turks capture Sofia.

1390: The Ottoman Turks capture Asia Minor from the Byzantines.

1396: The Ottoman Turks defeat a Hungarian Army at Nicopolis.

1398: The Ottoman Turks conquer Delhi.

1401: The Ottoman Turks capture Baghdad and Damascus.

1443: The Hungarians at Nish defeat The Ottoman Turks

1444: The Ottoman Turks defeat the Polish and Hungarians at Varna.

1447: The Arabs lose India, Persia, and Afghanistan.

1453: The Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople and destroy the Byzantine Empire.

1456: The Ottoman Turks capture Athens.

1463: The Ottoman Turks capture Bosnia.

1467: The Ottoman Turks capture Herzegovina

1492: The Country of Spain becomes a reality with the end of Arab rule. The Ottoman Turks invade Hungary

1493: The Ottoman Turks invade Dalmatia and Croatia.

1501: Persia officially adopts Islam.

1507: The Portuguese establish bases in the Persian Gulf.

1517: The Ottoman’s take Egypt

1526: The Arabs finally take India.

1528: The Ottoman Turks take Buda in Hungary. The next year they will fail to take Vienna.

1550: Islam spreads to Java, Molucca, and Borneo

1568: All remaining Muslims in Spain are forcibly converted to Catholicism.

1571: The Spread of the Ottoman Empire ends at the Mediterranean.

1711: Russia and Turkey go to war.

1718: Turkey and Austria go to war. Turkey loses and will lose Hungary.

1722: Afghanistan becomes independent from Persia.

1804: Sudan becomes an Islamic State.

1811: British occupy Indonesia. They will give it to the Dutch in 1816.

1824: Greece becomes independent.

1827: Malaya becomes a British protectorate.

1828: Russia declares war on Turkey.

1830: French forces occupy Algeria ending Turk rule.

1839: Turkey loses Egypt.

1840: Egypt is forced to give up Syria.

1857: Great Britain takes India and ends Muslim rule there.

1859: The Islamic State of Daghestan becomes a Russian State.

1876: Britain builds the Suez Canal and takes over Egypt.

1878: Turkey sells Cyprus to Britain and Russia takes Adrianople.

1879: With the treaty of Berlin, Turkey loses 4/5 of its land in Europe.

1881: France invades Tunisia.

1901: France occupies Morocco.

1905: Islam reaches France once again as it is recognized as a religion.

1916: Arabs rebel against Ottoman Rule. They are led by Lawrence of Arabia.

1918: With the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire ceases to exist. Syria and Damascus become French protectorates. Palestine is born.

1921: The country of Transjorden is declared along with that of Iraq.

1924: Arabia is established as it gains control of Mecca and Medina.

1928: Turkey is declared a secular state.

1932: Iraq gains its independence.

1935: Persia changes its name to Iran.

1936: With increased Jewish immigration the first war occurs between Jewish and Arab people in the Holy Land.

1941: Britain and Russia invade Iran.

1943: Palestine starts a terror war in the Holy Land.

1946: Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence.

1947: Pakistan is made a Muslim country as it separates from India.

1948: Israel becomes a country. The Arabs reject their own state and go to war with Israel. The Arabs lose their first war.

1951: Libya becomes independent.

1956: Morocco and Tunisia become independent. The Israelis take the Sinai.

1962: Algeria becomes independent.

1965: Malcolm X is assassinated in America ending for a time the Black Muslim movement in America. It would start up again in the 1970’s

1967: The six-day war

1973: The Yom Kipper War.

1979: The Shah is overthrown in Iran and the country becomes a fanatical Muslim state.

1980: Israel destroys Iraq’s nuclear plant and Iraq invades Iran

1989: Iraq-Iran war comes to an end,

1991: Persian Gulf War I

2001: The World Trade Center is destroyed. Later that year Afghanistan is pacified by America

2003: Iraq is freed.

March 11, 2004- A Jihadi group claims responsibility for bombings in Madrid, targeting it’s commuter railway and several trains. The Jihad attack killed 191, and wounded 1,460 others.
July 7, 2005- A radical Muslim group claims responsibility for bombings in London, in an attack which killed 52, and wounds over 700 others.
Sept 2008-The Islamic Resistance Movement, or Hamas, says that it wants the formation of a Palestinian national unity government to settle the political crisis which has divided Palestinians. The proposal for a technocrat government was made during a series of meetings between Egypt and representatives of the Palestinian factions that oppose the feud between Hamas and Fatah.

Nov 13 2009 - Officials in Turkey say that they “would not say no”, if asked to store Iran’s enriched uranium. There has been a noticeable thaw between the two countries lately, and according to a “Time” article, “The only country who’s not happy with the situation is Israel. The fact that Turkey is talking to Tehran implies that there is an exchange between the U.S. and Iran that [Turkey] is a go-between for.” Indeed, if Turkey is rebranding itself diplomatically as a bridge between the West and the Muslim world, it needs good ties with both.”

A comprehensive 2009 demographic study of 232 countries and territories reported that 23% of the global population, or 1.57billion people, are Muslims. Of those, it’s estimated over 75–90% are Sunni and 10–20% are Shia with a small minority belonging to other sects.

Islamic Terrorism on the Rise Since Obama’s Inauguration – Islamic terrorism is on the rise both domestically and internationally according to a report by Fox News on December 15, 2009. A bipartisan report by the American Security Project says the number of terrorism acts is on pace to surpass more than 1000 for all of 2009. Domestically, the number of terror-related incidents hit the highest number since 2001.

International Islamic Terrorism Escalates – The number of terrorist acts in 2009 spiked by almost 50% over 2008 levels to nearly 1000, up from 671. This includes an intense spike of 220 terrorist attacks in Pakistan alone for the first half of 2009, up from 81 in the first half of 2008. Somalia saw its terror incidents climb to 165 in the first half of 2009 from are on track to increase by up to 20% in 2009 over 2008’s levels.

Islamic Terrorist Attacks Increase in U.S. – The number of terrorist incidents in 2009 rose to 12 after a yearly average of just under 3 per year for all the years under Bush after 911. These incidents include the June attack by Abdulhakim Muhammad at a military recruitment center in Arkansas, murdering one soldier; the Fort Hood terrorism incident by Nidal Hasan, where he murdered 13 in a case of spree-shooting; the plot to bomb targets in NYC by Najibullah Zazi; and the incident with Abdulmutallab trying to blow up the Detroit-bound plane on Christmas.

2010

Obama Removes “Islam” from National Security Strategy Document – On April 15, 2010 FrontpageMag.com reported that President Barack Obama removed all mention of Islam from the National Security Strategy document, which during the Bush administration said: “The struggle against militant Islamic radicalism is the great ideological conflict of the early years of the 21st century.” This tragic lapse in good judgment by the president, choosing appeasement over the proven facts of Islam’s terrorist record leaves his loyalty to all Americans, especially those who have been effected by of Islamic terrorism in question.

Pakistan is “Epicenter of Islamic Terrorism” – (CNN, May 5, 2010) The suspect in the Times Square bombing attempt was caught as he was seeking to flee to Pakistan, a nation that analyst Fareed Zakaria calls the “epicenter of Islamic terrorism.” “It’s worth noting that even the terrorism that’s often attributed to the war in Afghanistan tends to come out of Pakistan, to be planned by Pakistanis, to be funded from Pakistan or in some other way to be traced to Pakistan”said Zakaria. He added that Pakistan’s connection with terrorist groups goes back decades and has often been encouraged by that nation’s military for strategic reasons.

Islamic Terrorism against Civilians in Israel

August 31, 2010: Four Israelis, including a pregnant woman, were murdered when terrorists ambushed their car as they were driving near Kiryat Arba in the West Bank. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack, which coincided with the restarting of Israeli-Palestinian peace talks in Washington, D.C

September 1, 2010: Two Israelis were wounded, one seriously, when Hamas terrorists ambushed their car as the couple was driving near Kochav Hashachar.

Islamic Terror Inside America – On September 3, 2010 Human Events warned that leading U.S. security experts say that homegrown Islamic terrorism is becoming a serious problem. And it will most likely get worse because our politically correct (PC) leaders refuse to address the root cause─fundamentalist Islam─and virtually no Muslim leaders are willing to expose the teachings that fuel Islamic terrorism.

2011

Islam in Action─Terrorist Attacks against Israelis

March 11, 2011 – Five Israelis all members of the same family were stabbed to death in their beds by two men, both believed to be Palestinian. The victims included father and mother Ehud and Ruth Fogel and three of their six children, Yoav, 11, Elad, 4, and 3 month-old Hadas.The brutal murders which occurred in Itamar drew international condemnation from governments, the United Nations and the Middle East Quartet of nations.

April 7, 2011An anti-tank missile fired from Gaza at a clearly marked yellow Israeli school bus driving near the Sha’ar Hanegev Regional Council wounded an Israeli teenager and the bus driver. The boy, 16-year-old Daniel Viflic later died from his wounds in the hospital.

August 18, 2011 – A series of attacks targeted civilians and soldiers in southern Israel, killing eight people and wounding at least 31. Terrorists from Gaza infiltrated Israel via the border with Egypt, and fired on a civilian buses and vehicles, detonated explosives when IDF soldiers arrived on the scene of the attack, and then launched mortar shells at soldiers along the Israeli-Egyptian border.

August 28, 2011 – Eight people were wounded when a Palestinian man from Nablus attacked a Tel Aviv nightclub. The terrorist hijacked a taxi in Jaffa and rammed into an Israel Border Police checkpoint that had been set up to protect the event of over 2,000 people. He then jumped out of the taxi, shouted “Allahu Akhbar” and began stabbing bystanders and police.

Canadian PM Says Islamic Terrorism Is Biggest Threat – In an interview with CBC News Canada on September 6, 2011 Prime Minister Stephen Harper stated that, “Islamicism is the biggest threat to Canada” and that the Conservatives will bring back the controversial anti-terrorism laws.

2012

French Jewish School Shooting by Islamic Gunman – On March 19, 2012 Mahamed Merah who claimed to have ties to al-Queda gunned down three Jewish school children, a rabbi at a Jewish school in Toulouse, France in the early morning hours. The same gunman carried out two earlier attacks killing three soldiers leaving a total of seven people dead and two wounded in southwestern France. The killer was shot dead by police after a siege at his flat.

Hamas Fires Barrages of Rockets into Southern Israel – (Gaza) On June 19, 2012 the armed wing of Hamas, the Islamic militant group that governs in Gaza fired barrages of rockets into southern Israel on Tuesday after a break of more than a year during which the group largely adhered to an informal cease-fire. Hamas said it had aimed its rockets at a civilian community and an Israeli military base near the border. Two police officers were injured.

Islamic Terrorists Launch More Attacks on Israelis – September 2, 2012 – Rocket and mortar attacks resumed with the start of the school year. No one was physically injured, but an agricultural hothouse was damaged, requiring thousands of shekels in repairs. Numerous residents suffered anxiety symptoms, and those with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) from the stress of living under constant rocket fire had symptoms triggered by the attack.

Hundreds of Islamic Thugs Terrorize Jewish Village – Septeber 8, 2012 – Hundreds of Palestinian Authority Arabs have been assaulting a Jewish village in the Binyamin region since Saturday afternoon as reported by Tazpit News Agency. Residents of the Jewish village of Esh Kodesh reported that the assault began when three men from the community were walking in one of the town’s vineyards on Saturday afternoon, during the Jewish Sabbath. The men were attacked by a large Arab mob armed with clubs and sticks, residents said. A security team from Esh Kodesh was called to the scene, as were nearby IDF units and encountered hundreds of PA men armed with rocks and other makeshift weapons─unable to stop the assault. Children in the village are crying,” community spokesman Aharon Katzuf told Tatzpit. “They can’t sleep because of the screams of ‘Yitbach al Yahud’ [Slaughter the Jews – ed.] and ‘Allahu Akbar.’”

2013

London beheading: On May 22, 2013 in London, two Muslim men shouting jihad’s ancient war-cry, “Allahu Akbar” beheaded a British soldier with a cleaver–in a busy intersection and in broad daylight. They boasted of their crime in front of passersby and asked to be videotaped. (Fox News)

Mosques Growing in Number in U.S.: Researcher Ihsan Bagby identified mosques that are in excess of the totals shown hr in these metropolitan areas: New York City (192), southern California (120), Chicago (90), Philadelphia (63), Detroit (62), San Francisco Bay (62), Atlanta (55), northern New Jersey (53), Houston (42), and Dallas-Fort Worth (39). States with the most mosques are: New York (257), California (246), Texas (166), Florida (118), Illinois (109), New Jersey (109), Pennsylvania (99), Michigan (77), Georgia (69), and Virginia (62).

2014

Boko Haram Kidnapping – April 2014, 276 female students were kidnapped from the Government Secondary School in the town of Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria. Responsibility for the Islamist kidnappings was claimed by Boko Haram, an Islamic Jihadist and terrorist organization based in northeast Nigeria. As of 29 June, more than 200 students were still missing.

Gamba, Kenya (July 5, 2014) – A 12-year-old Christian carrying a Bible was murdered by Islamic supremacists.

Benghazi, Libya (July 7, 2013) – Over two dozen people were killed in an ttack claimed by Isamic militia. For extensive list of hundreds of Islamic attacks in 2014

——————-

https://www.raptureready.com/time/rap31l.html

Access Islam. Over 1400 years of Islamic history at your fingertips. © Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Recover from http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/accessislam/timeline.html

Islam and Europe Timeline (355-1291 A.D.)

Posted on Actualizado enn


Islam and Europe Timeline (355-1291 A.D.)

A Chronology of the Muslim religion

Islam is a world religion that was founded by the prophet Muhammad more than 600 years after Christ. Followers of Islam, called Muslims, study and base their lives upon the Quran, the sacred text, which records the teachings of Muhammad.

The Arabic word islam means “submission,” reflecting the faith’s central tenet of submitting to Allah. Islamic practices are defined by the Five Pillars of Islam: faith, prayer, fasting, pilgrimage and alms.

Below is a timeline of the history of Islam. Major events are in bold.

timeline

355: After removing a Roman temple from the site (possibly the Temple of Aphrodite built by Hadrian), Constantine I has the Church of the Holy Sepulcher constructed in Jerusalem. Built around the excavated hill of the Crucifixion, legend has it that Constantine’s mother Helena discovered the True Cross here.

570: Muhammad was born in Mecca.

590 – 604: Pope Gregory the Great (c. 540 – 604) begans his liturgical reforms and changes in church administration.

594: Muhammad became the manager of the business of Lady Khadija.

595: Muhammad married Hadrat Khadija.

610: Muhammad had a religious experience on Mount Hira that changed his life.

613: Persians capture Damascus and Antioch.

614: Persians sack Jerusalem. damaging the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the process.

615: Muhammad invited the Hashimites to adopt Islam.

615: Persecution of Muslims by the Quaraish in Mecca intensified and a group of Muslims leave for Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia).

621: Abu Jahl became leader of a mounting opposition to Muslims in Mecca and organized a boycott of merchants in Mohammad’s clan, the Hashim.

622: About 75 converts from Medina took the two Pledges of al-Aqaba, professing to Islam and to protect Muhammad from all danger.

622: The Hijra: emigration of Muhammad and his followers to Yathrib (now: Madinat al-Nabi, “the city of the Prophet,” or simply, al-Madina). Foundation of the first Islamic community; social and economic reforms. Starting point of the Islamic calendar.

624: Muhammad broke with his Jewish supporters because they refused to recognize him as a prophet and adopt Isalm. He chose now to emphasize the Arabness of the new religion and has his followers face Mecca when praying instead of Jerusalem. In the end, all the Jews were either banished or executed.

March 15, 624: At the Battle of Abdr, Muhammad and his followers defeated an army from Mecca. Muhammad’s chief rival in Mecca, Abu Jahl, was executed.

627: Meccan leader Abu Sufyan (c. 567 – c. 655) laid siege to Muhammad’s forces in Medina during the battle of the Trench. Even with 10,000 men he was unsuccessful for the 15 days he was there. Muhammad suspected the Banu Quraiza Jews of helping the Meccans and had all the men killed.

627: A confederation was created between Muhammad’s followers in Mecca and the eight Arab clains in Medina with the Constitution of Medina.

628: Muhammad led about 1,600 men on a pilgrimage to Mecca where their passage was blocked by citizens of Mecca. Fortunately they agreed to negotiate with Muhammad and then later agreed to the Pact of Hudaibiya, ending hostilities and allowing for Muslim pilgrimages.

629: After a group of Muslims was attacked, Muhammad dissolved the Pact of Hudaibiya and prepared to attack Mecca.

630: An army of 30,000 Muslims marched on Mecca which surrendered with little resistance. Muhammad took control of the city and made it the spiritual center of Islam.

632: Death of Muhammad. His father-in-law, Abu-Bakr, and Umar devised a system to allow Islam to sustain religious and political stability. Accepting the name of caliph (“deputy of the Prophet”), Abu-Bakr begins a military exhibition to enforce the caliph’s authority over Arabian followers of Muhammad. Abu-Bakr then moved northward, defeating Byzantine and Persian forces. Abu-Bakr died two years later and Umar succeeded him as the second caliph, launching a new campaign against the neighboring empires.

632-34: Widespread tribal rebellion on the death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr, the first caliph (khalifa) reimposes the authority of the Islamic government throughout Arabia and sends Arab armies of conquest against Mesopotamia and Syria.

633: Muslims conquer Syria and Iraq.

634: Victory against the Byzantines in Palestine (Ajnadayn).

634-644: Umar (c. 591-644) reigns as the second caliph. The Muslims subjugate Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia. Garrisons established in the conquered lands, and the Muslim rulers begin to take control of financial organisation.

635: Muslims begin the conquest of Persia and Syria.

635: Arab Muslims capture the city of Damascus from the Byzantines.

August 20, 636: Battle of Yarmuk (also: Yarmuq, Hieromyax): Following the Muslim capture of Damascus and Edessa, Byzantine Emperor Heraclius organizes a large army which manages to take back control of those cities. However, Byzantine commander, Baänes is soundly defeated by Muslim forces under Khalid ibn Walid in a battle in the valley of the Yarmuk River outside Damascus. This leaves all of Syria open to Arab domination.

636 (?): The Arabs under Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas defeat a Sasanian army in the battle of Qadisiyya (near Hira), gaining Iraq west of the Tigris. A second victory follows at Jalula, near Ctesiphon.

637: The Arabs occupy the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. By 651, the entire Persian realm would come under the rule of Islam and continued its westward expansion.

637: Syria is conquered by Muslim forces.

637: Jerusalem falls to invading Muslim forces.

638: Caliph Umar I enters Jerusalem.

639-42: Conquest of Egypt (642 taking of Alexandria) by ‘Amr ibn al-‘As. Muslims capture the sea port of Caesarea in Palestine, marking end of the Byzantine presence in Syria.

641: Islam spreads into Egypt. The Catholic Archbishop invites Muslims to help free Egypt from Roman oppressors.

641: Under the leadership of Abd-al-Rahman, Muslims conquer southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Georgia, and Armenia.

641/2: Under the leadership of Amr ibn al-As, Muslims conquer the Byzantine city of Alexandria in Egypt. Amr forbids the looting of the city and proclaims freedom of worship for all. According to some accounts, he also has what was left of the Great Library burned the following year. Al-As creates the first Muslim city in Egypt, al-Fustat, and builds there the first mosque in Egypt.

644: Muslim leader Umar dies and is succeeded by Caliph Uthman, a member of the Umayyad family that had rejected Muhammad’s prophesies. Rallies arise to support Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, as caliph. Uthman launches invasions to the west into North Africa.

649: Muawiya I, a member of the Umayyad family, leads a raid against Cyprus, sacking the capital Salamis-Constantia after a short siege and pillaging the rest of the island.

652: Sicily is attacked by Muslims coming out of Tunisia (named Ifriqiya by the Muslims, a name later given to the entire continent of Africa).

653: Muawiya I leads a raid against Rhodes, taking the remaining pieces of the Colossus of Rhodes (one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world) and shipping it back to Syria to be sold as scrap metal.

654: Muawiya I conquers Cyprus and stations a large garrison there. The island would remain in Muslim hands until 0966.

655: Battle of the Masts: In one of the few Muslim naval victories in the entire history of Islam, Muslim forces under the command of Uthman bin Affan defeat Byzantine forces under Emperor Constant II. The battle takes place off the coast of Lycia and is an important stage in the decline of Byzantine power.

661-680: Mu’awiya, founder of the Umayyad dynasty, becomes the caliph and moves the capital from Mecca to Damascus. The Umayyad family rules Islam until 750. Ali’s followers form a religious party called Shiites and insist that only descendants of Ali deserve the title of caliph or deserve any authority over Muslims. The opposing party, the Sunnites, insist on the customs of the historical evolution of the caliphate rather than a hereditary descent of spiritual authority.

662: Egypt fell to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 868 A.D. A year prior, the Fertile Crescent and Persia yielded to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, whose rule lasted until 1258 and 820, respectively.

667: The Arabs occupy Chalcedon, threatening Constantinope. Sicily is attacked by Muslims sailing from Tunisia.

668: First Siege of Constantinople: This attack lasts off and on for seven years, with the Muslim forces generally spending the winters on the island of Cyzicus, a few miles south of Constantinople, and only sailing against the city during the spring and summer months. The Greeks are able to fend off repeated attacks with a weapon desperately feared by the Arabs: Greek Fire. It burned through ships, shields, and flesh and it could not be put out once it started. Muawiyah has to send emissaries to Byzantine Emperor Constans to beg him to let the survivors return home unimpeded, a request that is granted in exchange for a yearly tribute of 3,000 pieces of gold, fifty slaves, and fifty Arab horses.

669: The Muslim conquest reaches to Morocco in North Africa. The region would be open to the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 800.

672: Muslims under Mauwiya I capture the island of Rhodes.

672: Beginning of the ‘seven year’ Arab siege of Constantinople.

674: Arab conquest reaches the Indus River.

August 23, 676: Birth of Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) in Herstal, Wallonia, Belgium, as the illegitimate son of Pippin II. Serving as Mayor of the Palace of the kingdom of the Franks, Charles would lead a force of Christians that turn back a Muslim raiding party near Poitiers (or Tours) which, according to many historians, would effectively halt the advance of Islam against Christianity in the West.

677: Muslims send a large fleet against Constantinople in an effort to finally break the city, but they are defeated so badly through the Byzantine use of Greek Fire that they are forced to pay an indemnity to the Emperor.

680: Birth of Leo III the Isaurian, Byzantine Emperor, along the Turkish-Syrian border in the Syrian province of Commagene. Leo’s tactical skills would be responsible for turning back the second Arab Muslim siege of Constantinople in 0717, shortly after he is elected emperor.

688: Emperor Justinian II and Caliph al-Malik sign a peace treaty making Cyprus neutral territory. For the next 300 years, Cyprus is ruled jointly by both the Byzantines and the Arabs despite the continuing warfare between them elsewhere.

691: Birth of Hisham, 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It is under Hisham that Muslim forces would make their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.

698: Muslims capture Carthage in North Africa.

700: Muslims from Pamntelleria raid the island of Sicily.

711: With the further conquest of Egypt, Spain and North Africa, Islam included all of the Persian empire and most of the old Roman world under Islamic rule. Muslims began the conquest of Sindh in Afghanistan.

April 711: Tariq ibn Malik, a Berber officer, crosses the strait separating Africa and Europe with a group of Muslims and enters Spain (al-Andalus, as the Muslims called it, a word is etymologically linked to “Vandals”). The first stop in the Muslim conquest of Spain is at the foot of a mountain that comes to be called Jabel Tarik, the Mountain of Tarik. Today it is known as Gibraltar. At one time the Berbers had been Christians but they recently converted in large numbers to Islam after the Arab conquest of North Africa.

July 19, 711: Battle of Guadalete: Tariq ibn Ziyad kills King Rodrigo (or Roderic), Visigoth ruler of Spain, at the Guadalete River in the south of the Iberian peninsula. Tariq ibn Ziyad had landed at Gibraltar with 7,000 Muslims at the invitation of heirs of the late Visigoth King Witica (Witiza) who wanted to get rid of Rodrigo (this group includes Oppas, the bishop of Toledo and primate of all Spain, who happens to be the brother of the late king Witica). Ziyad, however, refuses to turn control of the region back over to the heirs of Witica. Almost the entire Iberian peninsula would come under Islamic control by 718.

712: Muslim governor of Northern Africa Musa ibn Nusayr follows Tariq ibn Ziyad with an army of 18,000 as reinforcements for the conquest of Andalusia. Musa’s father had been a Catholic Yemenite studying to be a priest in Iraq when he was captured in Iraq by Khalid, the “Sword of Islam,” and forced to choose between conversion or death. This invasion of Iraq had been one of the last military orders given by Muhammed before his death.

714: Birth of Pippin III (Pippin the Short) in Jupille (Belgium). Son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne, in 0759 Pippin would capture Narbonne, the last Muslim stronghold in France, and thereby drive Islam out of France.

715: By this year just about all of Spain is in Muslim hands. The Muslim conquest of Spain only took around three years but the Christian reconquest would require around 460 years (it might have gone faster had the various Christian kingdoms not been at each other’ throats much of the time). Musa’s son, Abd el-Aziz, is left in charge and makes his capital the city of Seville, where he married Egilona, widow of king Rodrigo. Caliph Suleiman, a paranoid ruler, would have el-Aziz assassinated and sends Musa into exile in his native Yemen village to live out his days as a beggar.

716: Lisbon is captured by Muslims.

717: Cordova (Qurtuba) becomes the capital of Muslim holdings in Andalusia (Spain).

717: Leo the Isaurian, born along the Turkish-Syrian border in the Syrian province of Commagene, revolts against the usurper Theodosius III and assumes the throne of the Byzantine Empire.

August 15, 717: Second Siege of Constantinople: Taking advantage of the civil unrest in the Byzantine Empire, Caliph Sulieman sends 120,000 Muslims under the command of his brother, Moslemah, to launch the second siege of Constantinople. Another force of around 100,000 Muslims with 1,800 galleys soon arrives from Syria and Egypt to assist. Most of these reinforcements are quickly destroyed with Greek Fire. Eventually the Muslims outside Constantinople begin to starve and, in the winter, they also begin to freeze to death. Even the Bulgarians, usually hostile to the Byzantines, send a force to destroy Muslim reinforcements marching from Adrianopolis.

August 15, 718: Muslims abandon their second siege of Constantinople. Their failure here leads to the weakening of the Umayyad government, in part because of the heavy losses. It is estimated that of the 200,000 soldiers who besieged Constantinople, only around 30,000 made it home. Although the Byzantine Empire also sustains heavily casualties and loses most its territory south of the Taurus Mountains, by holding the line here they prevent a disorganized and militarily inferior Europe from having to confront a Muslim invasion along the shortest possible route. Instead, the Arabic invasion of Europe must proceed along the longer path across northern Africa and into Spain, a route which prevents quick reinforcement and ultimately proves ineffective.

719: Muslims attack Septimania in southern France (so named because it was the base of operations for Rome’s Seventh Legion) and become established in the region known as Languedoc, made famous several hundred years later as the center of the Cathar heresy.

July 09, 721: A Muslim army under the command of Al-Semah and that had crossed the Pyrenees is defeated by the Franks near Toulouse. Al-Semah is killed and his remaining forces, which had previously conquered Narbonne, are forced back across the Pyrenees into Spain.

722: Battle of Covadonga: Pelayo, (690-737) Visigoth noble who had been elected the first King of Asturias (718-0737), defeats a Muslim army at Alcama near Covadonga. This is generally regarded as the first real Christian victory over the Muslims in the Reconquista.

724: Hisham becomes the 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It is under Hisham that Muslim forces make their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.

724: Under the command of Ambissa, Emir of Andalusia, Muslim forces raid southern France and capture the cities of Carcassone and Nimes. Primary targets in these and other raids are churches and monasteries where the Muslims take away holy objects and enslave or kill all the clerics.

725: Muslim forces occupied Nimes, France.

730: Muslim forces occupy the French cities of Narbonne and Avignon.

October 10, 732: Battle of Tours: With perhaps 1,500 soldiers, Charles Martel halts a Muslim force of around 40,000 to 60,000 cavalry under Abd el-Rahman Al Ghafiqi from moving farther into Europe. Many regard this battle as being decisive in that it saved Europe from Muslim control. Gibbon wrote: “A victorious line of march had been prolonged above a thousand miles from the rock of Gibraltar to the banks of the Loire; the repetition of an equal space would have carried the Saracens to the confines of Poland and the Highlands of Scotland; the Rhine is not more impassable than the Nile or Euphrates, and the Arabian fleet might have sailed without a naval combat into the mouth of the Thames. Perhaps the interpretation of the Koran would now be taught in the schools of Oxford, and her pulpits might demonstrate to a circumcised people the sanctity and truth of the revelation of Muhammed.” Others, though, argue that the battle’s importance has been exaggerated. The names of Tours, Poitiers, and Charles Martel do not appear in the Arab histories. They list the battle under the name Balat al-Shuhada, the Highway of Martyrs, and is treated as a minor engagement.

735: Muslim invaders capture the city of Arles.

737: Charles Martel sends his brother, Childebrand, to lay siege to Avignon and drive out the Muslim occupiers. Childebrand is successful and, according to records, has all the Muslims in the city killed.

739: Already having retaken Narbonne, Beziers, Montpellier, and Nimes during the previous couple of years, Childebrand captures Marseille, one of the largest French cities still in Muslim hands.

June 08, 741: Death of Leo III the Isaurian, Byzantine Emperor. Leo’s tactical skills were responsible for turning back the second Arab Muslim siege of Constantinople in 0717, shortly after he was elected emperor.

October 22, 741: Death of Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) in at Quierzy (today the Aisne county in the Picardy region of France). As Mayor of the Palace of the kingdom of the Franks, Charles had led a force of Christians that turned back a Muslim raiding party near Poitiers (or Tours) which, according to many historians, effectively halted the advance of Islam against Christianity in the West.

April 04, 742: Birth of Charlemagne, founder of the Frankish Empire.

743: Death of Hisham, 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It was under Hisham that Muslim forces made their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.

750: The Arabian Nights, a compilation of stories written under the reign of the Abbasids, became representative of the lifestyle and administration of this Persian influenced government.

750 – 850: The Four Orthodox Schools of Islamic Law were established.

750: The Abbasids assume control of the Islamic world (except Spain, which falls under the control of a descendant of the Umayyad family) and moved the capital to Baghdad in Iraq. The Abbasid Caliphate would last until 1258.

September 755: Abd al-Rahman of the Umayyad dynasty flees to Spain to escape the Abbasids and would be responsible for creating the “Golden Caliphate” in Spain.

756: The Emirate of Cordova is established by Umayyad refugee Abd al-Rahman I in order to revive the defeated Umayyad caliphate which had been destroyed in 0750 by the Abbasids. Cordova would become independent of the Abbasid Empire and represents the first major political division within Islam. The political and geographic isolation of the Cordova Caliphate would make it easier for Christians to decisively conquer it despite their failures elsewhere, although this would not be completed until 1492.

759: Arabs lose the city of Narbonne, France, their furthest and last conquest into Frankish territory. In capturing this city Pippin III (Pippin the Short) ends the Muslim incursions in France.

768: Pepin’s son, Carolus Magnus (Charlemagne), succeeded his father and became one of the most important European rulers of medieval history.

September 24, 768: Death of Pippin III (Pippin the Short) at Saint Denis. Son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne, in 759 Pippin captured Narbonne, the last Muslim stronghold in France, and thereby drove Islam out of France.

778: Charlemagne, King of the Franks and soon-to-be Holy Roman Emperor, is invited by a group of Arab leaders in northeastern Spain to attack Abd al-Rahman I, ruler of the Emirate of Cordova. Charlemagne obliges them, but is forced to retreat after only getting as far as Saragossa. It is during his march back through the Pyrenees that his forces are set upon by Basques. Among the many who die is the war leader Roland from Breton, killed in Roncevalles, whose memory has been preserved in the “Chanson de Roland,” an important epic poem during the Middle Ages.

785: The Great Mosque in Cordoba, in Muslim controlled Spain, was built.

787: Danes invade England for the first time.

788: Death of Abd al-Rahman I, founder of the Umayyad Emirate of Cordova. His successor is Hisham I.

792: Hisham I, emir of Cordova, calls for a Jihad against the infidels in Andalusia and France. Tens of thousands from as far away as Syria heed his call and cross the Pyrennes to subjugate France. Cities like Narbonne are destroyed, but the invasion is ultimately hated at Carcassone.

796: Death of Hisham I, emir of Cordova. His successor is his son, al-Hakam, who would keep up the jihad against the Christians but would also be forced to contend with rebellion at home.

799: The Basques rise in revolt and kill the local Muslim governor of Pamplona.

800: North Africa falls under the rule of the Aghlabi dynasty of Tunis, which would last until 909.

800 – 1200: Jews experience a “golden age” of creativity and toleration in Spain under Moorish (Muslim) rule.

800: Ambassadors of Caliph Harunu r-Rashid give keys to the Holy Sepulcher to the Frankish king, thus acknowledging some Frankish control over the interests of Christians in Jerusalem.

801: Vikings begin selling slaves to Muslims.

806: Hien Tsung becomes the Emperor of China. During his reign a shortage of copper leads to the introduction of paper money.

813: Muslims attack the Civi Vecchia near Rome.

April 04, 814: Death of Charlemagne, founder of the Frankish Empire.

816: With the support of Moors, the Basques revolt against the Franks in Glascony.

822: Death of Al-Hakam, emir of Cordova. He is succeeded by Abd al-Rahman II.

June 827: Sicily is invaded by Muslims who, this time, are looking to take control of the island rather than simply taking away booty. They are initially aided by Euphemius, a Byzantine naval commander who is rebelling against the Emperor. Conquest of the island would require 75 years of hard fighting.

831: Muslim invaders capture the Sicilian city of Palermo and make it their capital.

835: Birth of Ahmad Ibn Tultun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt. Originally sent there as a deputy by the Abbasid Caliphate, Tultun will establish himself as an independent power in the region, extending his control as far north as Syria. It is under Tultun that the Great Mosque of Cairo is built.

838: Muslim raiders sack Marseille.

841: Muslim forces capture Bari, principle Byzantine base in southeastern Italy.

846: Muslim raiders sail a fleet of ships from Africa up the Tiber river and attack outlying areas around Ostia and Rome. Some manage to enter Rome and damage the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul. Not until Pope Leo IV promises a yearly tribute of 25,000 silver coins do the raiders leave. The Leonine Wall is built in order to fend off further attacks such as this.

849: Battle of Ostia: Aghlabid monarch Muhammad sends a fleet of ships from Sardinia to attack Rome. As the fleet prepares to land troops, the combination of a large storm and an alliance of Christian forces were able to destroy the Muslims ships.

850: The Acropolis of Zimbabwe was built in Rhodesia.

850: Perfectus, a Christian priest in Muslim Cordova, is executed after he refuses to retract numerous insults he made about the Prophet Muhammed. Numerous other priests, monks, and laity would follow as Christians became caught up in a zest for martyrdom.

851: Abd al-Rahman II has eleven young Christians executed in the city of Cordova after they deliberately seek out martyrdom by insulting the Prophet Muhammed.

852: Death of Abd al-Rahman II, emir of Cordova.

858: Muslim raiders attack Constantinople.

859: Muslim invaders capture the Sicilian city of Castrogiovanni (Enna), slaughtering several thousand inhabitants.

863: Under Cyril (0826 – 0869) and Methodius (c. 0815 – 0885) the conversion of Moravia begins. The two brothers were sent by the patriarch of Constantinople to Moravia, where the ruler, Rostilav, decreed in 863 that any preaching done had to be in the language of the people. As a result, Cyril and Methodius developed the first usable alphabet for the Slavic tongue – thus, the Cyrillic alphabet.

866: Emperor Louis II travels from Germany to southern Italy to battle the Muslim raiders causing trouble there.

868: The Sattarid dynasty, whose rule would continue until 930, extended Muslim control throughout most of Persia. In Egypt, the Abbasid and Umayyad caliphates ended and the Egyptian-based Tulunid dynasty took over (lasting until 904).

869: Arabs capture the island of Malta.

870: After a month-long siege, the Sicilian city of Syracuse is captured by Muslim invaders.

871: King Alfred the Great of England created a system of government and education which allowed for the unification of smaller Anglo-Saxon states in the ninth and tenth centuries.

874: Iceland is colonized by Vikings from Norway.

876: Muslims pillage Campagna in Italy.

879: The Seljuk Empire unites Mesopotamia and a large portion of Persia.

880: Under Emperor Basil, the Byzantines recapture lands occupied by Arabs in Italy.

884: Death of Ahmad Ibn Tultun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt. Originally sent there as a deputy by the Abbasid Caliphate, Tultun established himself as an independent power in the region, extending his control as far north as Syria. It is under Tultun that the Great Mosque of Cairo is built.

884: Muslims invading Italy burn the monastery of Monte Cassino to the ground.

898: Birth of Abd al-Rahman III, generally regarded as the greatest of the Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. Under his rule, Cordova would become one of the most powerful centers of Islamic learning and power.

900: The Fatimids of Egypt conquered north Africa and included the territory as an extension of Egypt until 972.

902: The Muslim conquest of Sicily is completed when the last Christian stronghold, the city of Taorminia, is captured. Muslim rule of Sicily would last for 264 years.

905: The Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt is destroyed by an Abbasid army sent to reestablish control over the region of Egypt and Syria.

909: Sicily came under the control of the Fatimids’ rule of North Africa and Egypt until 1071. From 878 until 909, their rule of Sicily was uncertain.

909: The Fatimid Dynasty assumes control of Egypt. Claiming descent from Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Muhammed, and Ali bin Abi Talib, the Fatimids would rule Egypt until being overthrown by the Auyybids and Saladin in 1171.

911: Muslims control all the passes in the Alps between France and Italy, cutting off passage between the two countries.

912: Abd al-Rahman III becomes the Umayyad Caliph in Andalusia.

916: A combined force of Greek and German emperors and Italian city-states defeat Muslim invaders at Garigliano, putting Muslim raids in Italy to an end.

920: Muslim forces cross the Pyrenees, enter Gascony, and reach as far as the gates of Toulouse.

929: Abd al-Rahman III transforms the Emirate of Cordova into and independent caliphate no longer under even theoretical control from Baghdad.

935 – 969: The rule of Egypt was under the Ikhidid dynasty.

936: The Althing, the oldest body of representative government in Europe, is established in Iceland by the Vikings.

939: Madrid is recaptured from Muslim forces.

940: Hugh, count of Provence, gives his protection to Moors in St. Tropez if they agree to keep the Alpine passes closed to his rival, Berenger.

953: Emperor Otto I sends representatives to Cordova to ask Caliph Abd al-Rahman III to call off some Muslim raiders who had set themselves up in Alpine passes and are attacking merchant caravans going in and out of Italy.

961: Death of Abd al-Rahman III, generally regarded as the greatest of the Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. Under his rule, Cordova became one of the most powerful centers of Islamic learning and power. He is succeeded by Abdallah, a caliph who would kill many of his rivals (even family members) and has captured Christians decapitated if they refuse to convert to Islam.

961: Under the command of general Nicephorus Phokas, the Byzantines recapture Crete from Muslim rebels who had earlier fled Cordova.

965: Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Phokas reconquers Cyprus from the Muslims.

965: Grenoble is recaptured from the Muslims.

969: The Fatimid dynasty (Shi’ite) takes Egypt from the Ikshidids and assumes the title of caliphate in Egypt until 1171.

969: Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas reconquers Antioch (modern Antakya, capital of the province Hatay) from the Arabs.

972: The Fatimids of Egypt conquer north Africa.

972: The Muslims in the Sisteron district of France surrender to Christian forces and their leader asks to be baptized.

981: Ramiro III, king of Leon, is defeated by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (Almanzor) at Rueda and is forced to begin paying tribute to the Caliph of Cordova.

985: Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir sacks Barcelona

994: The monastery of Monte Cassino is destroyed a second time by Arabs.

July 03, 997: Under the leadership of Almanzor, Muslim forces march out of the city of Cordova and head north to capture Christian lands.

August 11, 997: Muslim forces under Almanzor arrive at the city of Compostela. The city had been evacuated and Almanzor burns it to the ground.

998: Venice conquers the Adriatic port of Zara.

c. 1000: Chinese perfect the production and use of gunpowder.

1000: The Seljuk Turkish Empire is founded by an Oghuz Turkish bey (chieftain) named Seljuk. Originally from the steppe country around the Caspian Sea, the Seljuks are the ancestors of the Western Turks, present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan.

August 08, 1002: Death of Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, ruler of Al-Andalus, on the way back from raiding the Rioja region.

1004: Arab raiders sack the Italian city of Pisa.

1007: Birth of Isaac I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor. Founder of the dynasty of the Comneni, Isaac’s government reforms may have helped the Byzantine Empire last longer.

1009: Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze sect and sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, orders the Holy Sepulcher and all Christian buildings in Jerusalem be destroyed. In Europe a rumor develops that a “Prince of Babylon” had ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulcher at the instigation of the Jews. Attacks on Jewish communities in cities like Rouen, Orelans, and Mainz ensue and this rumor helps lay the basis for massacres of Jewish communities by Crusaders marching to the Holy Land.

1009: Sulaimann, grandson of Abd al-Rahman III, returns over 200 captured fortresses to the Castilians in return for massive shipments of food for his army.

1012: Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze sect and sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, orders the destruction of all Christian and Jewish houses of worship in his lands.

1012: Berber forces capture Cordova and order that half the population be executed.

1013: Jews are expelled from the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordova, then ruled by Sulaimann.

1015: Arab Muslim forces conquer Sardinia.

1016: The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is partially destroyed by earthquakes.

1020: Merchants from Amalfi and Salerno are granted permission by the Egyptian Caliph to build a hospice in Jerusalem. Out of this would eventually grow The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (also known as: Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and most commonly as Knights Hospitaller).

1021: Caliph al-Hakim proclaimed himself to be divine and founded the Druze sect.

1022: Several Cathar heretics are discovered in Toulouse and put to death.

1023: Muslims expel the Berber rulers from Cordova and install Abd er-Rahman V as caliph.

1025: The power of the Byzantine Empire begins to decline.

1026: Richard II of Normandy leads a group of several hundred armed men on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the belief that the Day of Judgment had arrived. Turkish control of the region hampers their goals, however.

1027: The Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem is replaced by a Byzantine protectorate. Byzantine leaders begin the reconstruction of the Holy Sepulcher.

1029: Alp Arslan, “The Lion Hero,” is born. Arslan is the son of Togrul Beg, conqueror of Baghdad who made himself ruler of the Caliphate, and great-grandson of Seljuk, founder of the Seljuk Turkish empire.

1031: The Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba falls.

1031: The emir of Aleppo has the Krak des Chevaliers contructed.

1033: Castile is retaken from the Arabs.

1035: The Byzantines make a landing in Sicily, but don’t try to recapture the island from the Muslims.

1038: The Seljuk Turks become established in Persia.

1042: The rise of the Seljuk Turks begins.

1045 – 1099: Life of Ruy Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid (Arabic for “lord”), national hero of Spain. El Cid would become famous for his efforts to drive the Moors out of Spain.

May 18, 1048: Persian poet Umar Khayyam is born. His poem The Rubaiyat became popular in the West because of its use by Victorian Edward Fitzgerald.

1050 – 1200: The first agricultural revolution of Medieval Europe begins in 1050 with a shift to the northern lands for cultivation, a period of improved climate from 700 to 1200 in western Europe, and the widespread use and perfection of new farming devices. Technological innovations include the use of the heavy plow, the three-field system of crop rotation, the use of mills for processing cloth, brewing beer, crushing pulp for paper manufacture, and the widespread use of iron and horses. With an increase in agricultural advancements, Western towns and trade grow exponentially and Western Europe returns to a money economy.

1050: Duke Bohemond I (Bohemond Of Taranto, French Bohémond De Tarente), prince of Otranto (1089­1111) is born. One of the leaders of the First Crusade, Bohemond would be largely responsible for the capture of Antioch and he secures the title Prince of Antioch (1098 – 1101, 1103 – 04).

1050: Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomachos restores the complex of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem.

1054: A famine in Egypt forces al Mustansir, 8th Fatimid caliph, to seek food and other commercial assistance from Italy and the Byzantine Empire.

July 16, 1054: Great Schism: The Western Christian Church, in an effort to further enhance its power, had tried to impose Latin rites on Greek churches in southern Italy in 1052; as a consequence, Latin churches in Constantinople were closed. In the end, this leads to the excommunication of Michael Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople (who in turn excommunicates Pope Leo IX). Although generally regarded as a minor event at the time, today it is treated as the final event that sealed the Great Schism between Eastern and Western Christianity.

1055: Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad.

1056: The Almoravid (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power. Taking the name “those who line up in defense of the faith,” this is a group of fanatical Berber Muslims who would rule North Africa and Spain until 1147.

1061: Roger Guiscard lands at Sicily with a large Norman force and captures the city of Masara. The Norman reconquest of Sicily would require another 30 years.

1063: Alp Arslan succeeds his father, Togrul Beg, as ruler of the Baghdad Caliphate and the Seljuk Turks.

1064-1091: The Normans recapture Sicily from the Muslims.

1064: The Seljuk Turks conquer Christian Armenia.

September 29, 1066: William the Conqueror invades England and claims the English throne at the Battle of Hastings. Because William is both the King of England and the Duke of Normandy, The Norman Conquest fuses French and English cultures. The language of England evolves into Middle English with an English syntax and grammar and a heavily French vocabulary.

1067: Romanus IV Diogenes becomes the Byzantine Emperor.

1068: Alp Arslan invades the Byzantine Empire and is repulsed by Romanus IV Diogenes over the course of three campaigns. Not until 1070, though, would the Turks be driven back across the Euphrates river.

1070: Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem from the Fatimids. Seljuk rule is not quite as tolerant as that of the Fatimids and Christian pilgrims begin returning to Europe with tales of persecution and oppression.

1070: Brother Gerard, a leader of the Benedictine monks and nuns who run the hospices in Jerusalem. beings to organize The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (also known as: Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and most commonly as Knights Hospitaller) as a more military force for the active protection of Christian pilgrims.

1071: Normans conquer the last Byzantine holdings in Italy.

1071-1085: Seljuk Turks conquer most of Syria and Palestine.

August 19, 1071: Battle of Manzikert: Alp Arslan leads an army of Seljuk Turks against the Byzantine Empire near Lake Van. Numbering perhaps as many as 100,000 men, the Turks take the fortresses of Akhlat and Manzikert before Byzantine Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes can respond. Although Diogenes is able to recapture Akhlat, the siege of Manzikert fails when a Turkish relief force arrives and Andronicus Ducas, an enemy of Romanus Diogenes, refuses to obey orders to fight. Diogenes himself is captured and released, but he would be murdered after his return to Constantinople. Partly because of the defeat at Manzikert and partly due to the civil wars following the murder of Digoenes, Asia Minor would be left open to Turkish invasion.

1072: Palermo falls to the Norman adventurers Roger I and Robert Guiscard. Guiscard allows to the inhabitants the right to practice their religion and a certain autonomy.

December 15, 1072: Malik Shah I, son of Alp Arslan, succeeds his father as Seljuk Sultan.

1073: Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara.

July 1074: El Cid marries Jimena, niece of Alfonso IV of Castile and daughter of the Count of Oviedo.

1078: Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea. It would change hands three more times, finally coming under control of the Turks again in 1086.

1079: Battle of Cabra: El Cid led his troops to a rout of Emir Abd Allah of Granada.

1080: Order of the Hospital of St. John is founded in Italy. This special order of knights was dedicated to guarding a pilgrim hospital, or hostel, in Jerusalem.

1080: An Armenian state is founded in Cilicia, a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), north of Cyprus, by refugees feeling the Seljuk invasion of their Armenian homeland. A Christian kingdom located in the midst of hostile Muslim states and lacking good relations with the Byzantine Empire, “Armenia Minor” would provide important assistance to Crusaders from Europe.

1081 – 1118: Alexius I Comnenus is Byzantine emperor.

1081: El Cid, now a mercenary because he had been exiled by Alfonso IV of Castile, enters the service of the Moorish king of the northeast Spanish city of Zaragosa, al-Mu’tamin, and would remain there for his successor, al-Mu’tamin II.

1082: Ibn Tumart, founder of the Amohad Dynasty, is born in the Atlas mountains.

1084: Seljuk Turks conquer Antioch, a strategically important city.

October 25, 1085: The Moors are expelled from Toledo, Spain, by Alfonso VI.

October 23, 1086: Battle of Zallaca (Sagrajas): Spanish forces under Alfonso VI of Castile are defeated by the Moors and their allies, the Almorivids (Berbers from Morocco and Algeria, led by Yusef I ibn Tashufin), thus preserving Muslim rule in al-Andalus. The slaughter of Spaniards was great and Yusef refused to abide by his agreement to leave Andalusia in the hands of the Moors. His intention was actually to make Andalusia an African colony ruled by the Almorivids in Morocco.

1087: After his crushing defeat at Zallaqa, Alfonso VI swallows his pride and recalls El Cid from exile.

September 13, 1087: Birth of John II Comnenus, Byzantine emperor.

1088: Patzinak Turks begin forming settlements between the Danube and the Balkans.

March 12, 1088: Urban II is elected pope. An active supporter of the Gregorian reforms, Urban would become responsible for launching the First Crusade.

1089: Byzantine forces conquer the island of Crete.

1090: Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravids, captures Granada.

1091: The last Arabic fortress in Sicily falls to the Normans.

1091: Cordova (Qurtuba) is captured by the Almoravids.

1092: After the death of Seljuk Sultan (al-sultan , “the power”) Malik Shah I, the capital of the Seljuks is moved from Iconjium to Smyrna and the empire itself dissolves into several smaller states.

May 1094: El Cid captures Valencia from the Moors, carving out his own kingdom along the Mediterranean that is only nominally subservient to Alfonso VI of Castile. Valencia would be both Christian and Muslim, with adherents of both religions serving in his army.

August 1094: The Almoravids from Morocco land near Cuarte and lay siege to Valencia with 50,000 men. El Cid, however, breaks the siege and forces the Amoravids to flee – the first Christian victory against the hard-fighting Africans.

November 18, 1095: Pope Urban II opens the Council of Clermont where ambassadors from the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, asking help against the Muslims, were warmly received.

FIRST CRUSADE (1096-99)

Spring, 1096: Peasants’ (or PeopleÕs) Crusade sets out from Europe. Three armies don’t make it past Hungary.

Spring-Summer 1096: Massacres against German Jews occur on the way to the Holy Land.Ê Crusaders believe that the battle against Christ’s enemies ought to begin at home.

August, 1096: Emperor Alexius of Constantinople shipped the Peasants’ Crusade over the Bosporus.

Late Summer, 1096: First Crusade leaders depart Europe.

October 1096: Peasants’ Crusade annihilated in Anatolia by the Turks.

Spring, 1097: First Crusade contingents assembling in Constantinople.

End of April 1097: First Crusade began the march in Anatolia to Nicaea.

May 14ÐJune 19 1097: Siege of Nicaea.

July 1, 1097: Battle of Dorylaeum (Eskisehir).

October 21, 1097 Ð June 3, 1098: Crusader siege of Antioch.

December 31, 1097: First Battle of Harenc. Turkish prisoners were dragged within sight of the walls of Antioch and beheaded.

February 9, 1098: Second Battle of Harenc.

February, 1098: Emperor Alexius’ general Tacitius abandons the siege of Antioch.

Mar 10, 1098: Citizens of Edessa give Baldwin control of the city.

Jun 1, 1098: Stephen of Blois and a large group of French crusaders flee the siege of Antioch with news of the arrival of Emir Kerboga of Mosul and his army of 75,000.

Jun 3, 1098: Antioch falls to Bohemond and the remaining crusaders.

Jun 5-9, 1098: KerbogaÕs army arrives before Antioch, forcing Bohemond to assume the role of the beseiged.

Jun 14, 1098: Peter Bartholomew discovers the supposed Holy Lance (the weapon which had stabbed Jesus during his crucifixion.)Ê Crusader morale skyrockets.

Jun 28, 1098: Battle of Orontes. Crusader victory forces Kerboga to lift the siege of Antioch.

Nov 27-Dec 11, 1098: Crusaders capture M’arrat-an-Numan.

Jan 13, 1099: Raymond of Toulouse, after disagreeing with Bohemund about the future crusader course of action, leads the majority of crusaders away from Antioch and toward Jerusalem.

Feb 14, 1099: Raymond begins the disorganized siege of Arqah, near Tripoli.

Late Mar, 1099: Godfrey and Robert of Flanders join the siege of Arqah.

April 20, 1099: Peter Bartholomew dies after attempting an ordeal by fire to prove the authenticity of the Hold Lance.

Mid-May, 1099: Raymond lifts the siege of Argah and pushes to Jerusalem.

Jun 7, 1099: Crusaders reach the walls of Jerusalem.

Jun 13, 1099: Crusaders fail to take Jerusalem by storm.

Jul 15, 1099: In the only fully coordinated operation of the First Crusade, Godfrey’s forces succeed in scaling the walls of Jerusalem (near Herod’s Gate) through the effective use of a massive siege tower and ladders.ÊÊ Once in the city, the Crusaders massacre the garrison of Fatimid Moslems and a large percentage of the Moslem and Jewish population.Ê Godfrey was elected Guardian of Jerusalem.

Aug 12, 1099: Battle of Ascalon. According to most accounts (both crusader and Muslim), the Fatimids were caught unprepared and the battle was short. Al-Afdal left behind his camp and its treasures, which were captured by Robert and Tancred. Crusader losses are unknown, but the Egyptians lost about 10-12 000 men. After the battle, almost all of the remaining crusaders returned to their homes in Europe, their vows of pilgrimage having been fulfilled. There were perhaps only a few hundred knights left in Jerusalem by the end of the year, but they were gradually reinforced by new crusaders, inspired by the success of the original crusade. Ascalon itself remained under Fatimid control and was soon re-garrisoned. It became the base of operations for invasions of the Kingdom of Jerusalem every year afterwards, and numerous battles were fought there in the following years, until it was finally captured by the crusaders in 1153.

1100: Baldwin, count of Edessa, escapes an ambush near Beirut and proclaims himself king of Jerusalem.

1104: Muslim victory at Harran, which checks the Crusaders’ eastward advance.

1108: Two coalitions made up of Crusaders and Muslims confront one another near Tel Bashir.

1109: Fall of Tripoli after a 2000-day siege.

1110: Fall of Beirut and Saida.

1111: Ibn al-Khashab, the qadi of Aleppo, organizes a riot against the caliph of Baghdad to demand intervention against the Frankish occupation.

1112: Victorious resistance at Tyre.

1115: Alliance of Muslim and Frankish princes of Syria against an army dispatched by the sultan.

1119: Ilghazi, ruler of Aleppo, crushes the Crusaders at Sarmada.

1124: The Crusaders take Tyre. They now occupy the entire coast, except for Ascalon.

1125: Ibn al-Khashab is murdered by the Assassins sect.

1128: Failure of Crusaders thrust at Damscus. Zangi the ruler of Aleppo.

1135: Zangi fails to take Damascus.

1137: Zangi captures Fulk, king of Jerusalem, then releases him.

1140: Alliance of Damascus and Jerusalem against Zangi.

THE SECOND CRUSADE (1144-1155)

1144: Zangi takes Edessa, destroying the first of the four Frankish states of the Orient.

1146: Murder of Zangi. His son Nur al-Din replaces him in Aleppo.

1148: Debacle at Damascus for a new Frankish expedition led by Conrad, emperor of Germany, and Louis VII, king of France.

1154: Nur al-Din takes control of Damascus, unifying Muslim Syria under his authority.

1163-1169: The struggle for Egypt. Shirkuh, lieutenant of Nur al-Din, finally wins. Proclaimed vizier, he dies two months later. He is succeeded by his nephew Saladin (Salahuddin).

1171: Saladin proclaims the overthrow of the Fatimid caliphate. Sole master of Egypt, he finds himself in conflict with Nur al-Din.

1174: Death of Nur al-Din. Saladin takes Damascus.

1183: Saladin takes Aleppo. Egypt and Syria now reunited under his aegis.

THE THIRD CRUSADE (1187-1192)

1187: The year of Islamic victory.Ê Saladin crushes the Crusaders armies at Hittin, near Lake Tiberias. He reconquers Jerusalem and the greater part of the Crusaders territories. The Crusaders now hold only Tyre, Tripoli and Antioch.

1190-92: Setback for Saladin at Acre. Intervention of Richard the Lionheart, king of England, enables the Crusaders to recover several cities from the sultan, but not Jerusalem.

1193: Saladin dies in Damascus at the age of 55. After several years of civil war, his empire is reunited under the authority of his brother al-Adil.

THE FOURTH AND FIFTH CRUSADES (1194-1201)

1204: The Crusaders take Constantinople. Sack of the city.

THE SIXTH CRUSADE (1216-1218)

1218-21: Invasion of Egypt by the Crusaders. They take Damietta and head for Cairo, but the sultan al-Kamil, son of al-Adil, finally repels them.

THE SEVENTH CRUSADE (1227-1229)

1229: Al-Kamil delivers Jerusalem to the emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, arousing a storm of indignation in the Arab world.

1244: The Crusaders lose Jerusalem for the last time.

THE EIGHTH CRUSADE (1245-1247)

1248-50: Invasion of Egypt by Louis IX, King of France, who is defeated and captured. Fall of the Ayyubid dynasty; replaced by the rule of the Mamluks.

1258: The Mongol chief Hulegu, grandson of Genghis Khan, sacks Baghdad, massacring the population and killing the last Abbasid caliph.

1260: The Mongol army, after occupying first Aleppo and then damascus, is defeated at the battle of Ayn Jalut in palestine. Baybars at the head of the Mamluk sultanate.

1268: Baybars takes Antioch, which had been allied with the Mongols.

1270: Louis IX dies near Tunis in the course of a failed invasion.

1289: The mamluk sultan Qalawun takes Tripoli.

1291: The sultan Khalil, son of Qalawun, takes Acre, putting an end to two centuries of Crusader presence in the Orient.

(adapted from the Christianity vs. Islam: Timeline of the Crusades, with many additions.)

A timeline of the Islamic faith

c. 570 CE
Birth of Muhammad
c. 610 CE
Muhammad receives first vision in a cave near Mecca.
c. 610-22 CE
Muhammad preaches in Mecca.
622 CE
Hijira – Muhammad and followers flee to Medina.
Islamic calendar (AH, Anno Hegirae) begins.
624 CE
Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at Badr.
625
Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud.
630
Muslims capture Mecca. Ka’ba is cleansed, pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes of Arabia vow allegiance to Muhammad
632
Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as caliph.
632-33
Wars of ridda (apostasy) restore allegiance to Islam
633
Muslim conquests (Futuhat) begin.
633-42
Muslim armies take the Fertile Crescent (Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia), North African coast, parts of Persian and Byzantine Empires
c. 650
Caliph Uthman has the Qur’an written down.
656
Uthman is murdered; Ali becomes fourth caliph.
657
Battle of Siffin. Mu’awiya, governor of Syria, claims the caliphate.
659
Arbitration at Adruh is opposed by Ali’s supporters.
661
Ali is murdered; Mu’awiya becomes caliph. Beginning of Umayyad Caliphate (661-750).
680
Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi’at Ali (“party of Ali”) or Shi’a sect.
Comparison chart: Sunni and Shia Islam
685-705
Reign of Abd al-Malik. Centralization of administration – Arabic becomes official written language (instead of Greek and Persian) and Arab coinage is established.
late 600s
Ruling classes in East and West Africa convert to Islam.
700-800s
Groups of ascetics and mystics begin to form
710
Arab armies enter Spain from North Africa.
732
Muslim empire reaches its furthes extent. Battle of Tours prevents further advance northwards.
747
Revolt defeats the Umayyads.
750
Abu l’Abbas becomes caliph in Iraq
754
Baghdad (Madinat al-Salam, “city of peace”) becomes the new capital of the Abbasid empire.
755
Abd ar-Rahman founds an Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba, Spain.
765
Division within Shi’ites – majority are the modern Imamiyya (Twelvers) who co-exist with Abbasid caliphs; minority are more extreme Isma’iliyaa (Seveners).
786-809
Reign of Harun ar-Rashid, best known through the stories of The Thousand and One Nights.
800s
Written collections of Hadith (sayings of the Prophet) are compiled. Sicily comes under Muslim rule.
813-33
Reign of Ma’mun. Theological controversy over whether the Qur’an is created or uncreated and eternal. Center for translation of texts from Greek to Arabic founded in Baghdad.
869-883
Uprisings of black slaves (Zanj) are eventually defeated.
908
First Fatimid caliph in Tunisia.
928
Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman III declares himself caliph in Cordoba.
940
Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam, disappears. Twelvers still await the future return of the “Hidden Imam.”
945
The Buyids (Persian) invade Baghdad and take power from caliph.
969
Fatimids gain power in Egypt and attack Palestine, Syria, and Arabia. Cairo (Al-Qahira, “the victorious city”) is founded.
980-1037
Life of Avicenna, Iranian physician and Aristotelian philosopher.
996-1021
Reign of Fatimid al-Hakim. Hamza ibn Ali forms basis of esoteric Druze religion.
late 900s
West Africa begins to convert to Islam
1030
Umayyad caliphate in Cordoba defeated by the Christian Reconquista.
Comparison chart: Islam and Christianity
1055
Seljuk Turks take Baghdad; Abbasids now only nominal rulers.
1000s
Reconquista takes more of Spain, Sicily falls to the Normans, Crusader kingdoms are briefly established in Palestine and Syria.
1071
Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert.
1090
Hasan-i Sabbah takes Alamut in the Persian mountains, the Assassin sect forms around him.
1099
Christian Crusaders take Jerusalem.
1100-1200s
Sufi orders (turuq) are founded.
1126-98
Life of Averroës, Muslim philosopher from Cordoba who sought to integrate Islam with Greek thought.
1171
Fatimid power ends in Egypt with the conquests of Saladin.
1174
Saladin declares himself sultan of Egypt and Syria.
1193
Death of Saladin; most of Crusader states have returned to Islam.
1200s
Assassins wipes out by the Mongols. Indian rulers in Delhi take title of Sultan. Spanish mystic Muhyi al-Din ibn al-Arabi (1165-1240) flourishes.
1221
Genghis Khan and the Mongols enter Persia.
1241
Mongols take the Punjab.
1258
Mongols capture Baghdad; city is sacked and caliph is killed. End of Abbasid caliphate.
1281-1324
Reign of Uthman (Osman), who founds the Ottoman Empire. Muslim merchants and missionary Sufis settle in SE Asia.
mid-1300s
Ottomans capture Bursa and Iznik and move into Europe.
1366
Capital of Ottoman Empire moved from Bursa to Adrianople.
late 1300s
Ottomans take control of the Balkans.
1400s
Islam reaches the Philippines.
1453
Mehmet Fatih (rules 1451-81) conquers Constantinople. The two halves of the Ottoman Empire are united and the sultan becomes Byzantine emperor.
1492
Castile and Aragon capture Granada. All Muslims (and Jews) expelled from Spain.
1501
Isma’il (1487-1524) claims to be the Hidden Imam and is proclaimed Shah (king) of Persia. Twelver Shi’ism becomes official religion of Persia.
1516
Ottomans conquer Syria and Egypt.
1517
Ottomans control Mecca and Medina.
1520-66
Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent; Ottoman Empire reaches its zenith. Hungary and coastlands of Algeria and Tunisia come under Ottoman rule.
1526
Babur (Mongolian) seizes the Delhi sultanate and takes control of northern India.
1556
Akbar founds the Mughal dynasty in northern India.
1600-1700s
Venetians, Habsburgs, and Russians divide European Ottoman lands between them.
1625
Java comes under rule of Muslim kingdom of Mataram.
1699
Treaty of Karlowitz confirms first substantial losses of Ottoman Empire in Europe.
1700s
Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab rejects Sufism and all innovation (bid’a). Founds what becomes the Saudi Arabian kingdom. Hindus regain power from Mughals in northern India.
1738
Mughal empire invaded by the Afghans.
1779
Afghans ousted by Qajar dynasty, which rules Persia until 1925.
1798
Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt.
1805
Muhammad Ali becomes governor of Egypt, which becomes independent of the Ottomans, gains control of western Arabia and extends into the Sudan.
1807-76
Tanzimat period. Ottoman Empire undergoes extensive program of modernization in government, law, and medicine.
1830
Greece regains independence from Ottomans.
1850s
Non-Muslim Ottoman citizens granted equality with Muslims.
1858
Last Mughal in India is deposed and India comes under British rule.
1876-1908
Reign of Abd al-Hamid II; autocratic and religiously conservative period in Ottoman rule.
1878
Congress of Berlin recognizes independence of Balkan states previously under Muslim rule.
1882-1952
Egypt occupied by the British.
1908-18
Last decade of Ottoman rule. Rise of nationalistic “Young Turks.” More liberal policies develop.
1912
Founding of Islamic Union (Sareket Islam), a modernizing movement in SE Asia.
1918
Fall of Ottoman Empire. League of Nations grants Britain mandatory status over Palestine and Iraq, and France over Lebanon and Syria.
1923
Republic of Turkey established. Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) is first president.
1927
Tablighi Jamaat reform movement founded in India.
1928
Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) founded in Egypt.
1941
Jamaat-i Islami reform movement founded in Lahore, India.
1945
Indonesia becomes independent republic.
1945-60s
Islam spreads to the West with mass migrations from Asia, Africa, and India.
1947
Pakistan founded as an Islamic nation. Islam becomes a minority religion in India.
1957
Independent Malayan state established with Islam as the official religion but guaranteed tolerance.
1960s
Familes from SE Asia and North Africa emigrate to Europe and the Americas.
1979
Shah of Iran is overthrown by Ayatullah Ruhullah Khumayni, who establishes strict fundamentalist rule of Shi’a principles.
late 1990s
Taliban come to power in Afghanistan.
2001
Muslim extremists attack the United States.
2003
Saddam Hussein ousted by Western forces

—————

http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/imperialism/notes/islamchron.html

http://www.preceden.com/timelines/6675-edad-media-ii–origen-y-expansi-n-del-islam

http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/timeline.htm

 

Arabia y los árabes antes del surgimiento del Islam

Posted on


Arabia y los árabes antes del surgimiento del Islam

Esta entrada se centra en la génesis y nacimiento del Islam. El surgimiento de esta religión, cuya vida se ha prolongado hasta nuestros días, no fue espontáneo. Fueron necesarios una serie de condicionantes físicos, económicos, sociológicos y culturales para dar forma a una de las religiones mayoritarias del mundo actual. Estas condiciones y su influencia en la configuración de la religión islámica son el motivo de esta entrada.

LA PENÍNSULA ARÁBIGA Y SUS ASPECTOS FÍSICOS

Desde su nacimiento y desarrollo, el papel del Islam en Arabia ha sido tan fundamental e influyente que ha cambiado para siempre la configuración de la zona y el concepto que se tiene de la misma. Tal es así que en el lenguaje común son frecuentes las confusiones sobre conceptos tales como “árabes” y “musulmanes”, que pueden ser empleados indistintamente, lo que puede dar lugar a notables errores y confusiones fácilmente explicables. Básicamente, el término “árabe” hace referencia a las poblaciones que habitaban la península arábiga en tiempos de Mahoma, sin tener en cuenta el credo religioso que profesasen. Sin embargo, esos mismos pobladores no vivían confinados en ese territorio y ya desde el siglo VIII a. c. podemos encontrar grupos árabes en regiones del Creciente Fértil y Mesopotamia aunque esta expansión no tuvo la repercusión que tendría tras la predicación de Mahoma.

Allah-green

Alá (Dios) en árabe

La península arábiga es, geográficamente hablando, una zona especial del planeta. Su ubicación entre el Mar Rojo, por el que se comunica con Egipto, el Océano Índico, que la une a oriente, y el Golfo Pérsico, que la separa de Persia refuerzan su carácter de enlace entre Asia y África. Desde tiempos muy remotos fue atravesada por rutas comerciales, pero su carácter desértico contribuyó a su aislamiento y favoreció que los contactos con otros pueblos fuesen fundamentalmente marítimos o a través de la costa. Además, los árabes, como dueños del desierto podían alcanzar con facilidad regiones más ricas desde épocas anteriores a la llegada del Islam.

Como hemos señalado, a pesar de estar rodeada de mar, Arabia es mayoritariamente una zona desértica, aunque las influencias climáticas inciden sobre el desierto atemperándolo, especialmente en la zona del Hiyaz, al oeste, que es una de las zonas habitables de Arabia, y donde se encuentran los más importantes oasis. Pero, en general, el clima es el propio del desierto, por lo que la vida se concentra en los lugares donde hay agua, en los oasis. Por esta razón, existe un déficit agrícola en casi toda la península y, prácticamente, sólo en las tierras meridionales, Yemen y Hadramaut, donde el clima es más templado, se ha producido un cierto desarrollo agrario. Debido a la pobreza de las tierras, los árabes se veían obligados a practicar el nomadismo en una de las áreas más agresivas del planeta. Para viajar de un sitio a otro, el medio tradicional era el camello (gracias a sus excelentes virtudes y adaptación al clima) por lo que era uno de los principales productos de su ganadería nómada, aunque junto con éste, los árabes explotaban a otros animales como las cabras.

Mapa_Islam 5

La península arábiga, próximo oriente y el norte de África durante la Edad Media

LOS POBLADORES DE ARABIA

Desde principios de nuestra era, Arabia estaba situada entre dos grandes imperios: romanos y bizantinos al oeste y persas en la región oriental. Condiciones que se mantienen cientos años y que aportan cierta estabilidad en las zonas limítrofes a la península.

Dentro de este conjunto de pobladores primitivos de Arabia podemos distinguir dos grupos:

Los beduinos: Son los habitantes del desierto, árabes pobres y tradicionales que viven en un estado de nomadismo.

Los yemeníes: Son los árabes ricos y progresistas que se han sedentarizado. Habitantes del sur, estos pueblos dieron lugar a importantes civilizaciones en la Antigüedad como el reino de Saba.

Además, en Arabia se encontraban grupos importantes de judíosque convivían perfectamente con los árabes y se dedicaban a diversas actividades económicas.

19172_Bedouincamp_f

Un campamento beduino, por Karl Wilhelm Gentz

Para todos los árabes, tanto beduinos como yemeníes, la tribuera la unidad básica de agrupamiento, y ésta estaba formada por individuos que se consideraban descendientes de un antepasado común (ya fuera este hecho una realidad o mera ficción). Las distintas tribus estaban compuestas por clanesdispersos que agrupaban familias extensas cuyos vínculos de parentesco sí eran reales y tangibles. Por regla general, cada familia estaba compuesta por el jefe de la misma, su mujer, sus hijos y sus esclavos. Los clanes nómadas constituían campamentos móviles que trasladaban los rebaños de un lugar a otro. La organización interna de los clanes se sustentaba sobre una sólida estructura patriarcal en la que la mujer desempeñaba un papel subalterno y donde prácticas como la poligamia o la repudiación de esposas eran habituales. El papel del hombre era distinto: la comunidad árabe era una sociedad de hombres libres, e igualitaria en sus orígenes, al existir la propiedad comunal entre los miembros de la tribu. Todas las tribus tenían un jefe o sayid elegido por los hombres de la tribu y que estaba asistido por un consejo de ancianos en el que estaban representados todos los linajes que formaban la tribu. De esta forma, los árabes estaban organizados en tribus independientes de las demás y se agrupaban en clanes, por lo que eran frecuentes los enfrentamientos entre tribus y entre clanes. Los vínculos de solidaridaderan básicos, el individuo de la Arabia preislámica sólo podía sobrevivir dentro de este marco de familia-clan-tribu.

beduinos

Beduinos: Escena de Lawrence de Arabia (1962)

Para el occidental no especializado, la gran cantidad de nombres árabes e islámicos presentan una gran dificultad al no poderse vincular con nuestro entorno. De forma aclaratoria, podemos decir que el nombre árabe consta de cinco partes:

  1. Ism: es el nombre personal, correspondiente a nuestro nombre de pila y suele tener origen en la tradición religiosa como Sulayman, Yaqub o Harun o bien son puramente árabes como Muhammad (Mahoma), Hamid, Hasan o Umar. También pueden estar compuestos de dos partes (una de las cuales representa un aspecto de la divinidad) como Abd Allah (Esclavo de Dios), Abd al-Rahmán (Esclavo del Misericordioso) o Abd al-Malik (Esclavo del Rey).
  2. Kunya: es un apelativo de tipo respetuoso, generalmente antepuesto al ism. Un ejemplo típico podría ser Abu Abd Allah, con la que se indica que el individuo es el padre de Abd Allah (este último suele ser su primogénito).
  3. Nasab: indica la filiación del individuo, siempre en línea paterna. Puede equipararse, salvando las distancias, con nuestro apellido. La filiación siempre se establece mediante la palabra ibn (“hijo de…”). La filiación puede alargarse por línea paterna de forma indefinida. Así, Muhammad ibn Abd Allah, “Muhammad hijo de Abd Allah” puede incluir a abuelos, bisabuelos, etc. si la fórmula se repite.
  4. Nisba: expresa la adscripción tribal de una persona o la ciudad o región de la que es originaria. De esta forma, al-Qurayshi implica que el individuo era de la tribu qurayshí y al-Qurtubí que procede de Córdoba.
  5. Laqab: es el sobrenombre, que puede referirse a una peculiaridad física, a un mote o, incluso, a un oficio o cargo. Podemos encontrar de esta forma, a al-Tawil (el largo), al-Katib (el secretario) o al-Mansur (el victorioso)
Nombre Islam

Ejemplo: Nombre completo de Almanzor

Los árabes no tenían una organización religiosa unitaria ni muy elaborada, y daban culto a una serie de fuerzas de la naturaleza. Los beduinostenían unas creencias muy simples en espíritus, djinns, que se personificaban en elementos naturales como árboles o piedras a los que daban culto. En el sur, entre los yemeníes, sí existía una mayor organización religiosa, allí se han encontrado rastros de creenciaspoliteístas más elaboradas y la presencia de templos rudimentarios, donde dichos dioses recibían culto. Las influencias judías, zoroastristas o cristianas(incluido corrientes heréticas como el nestorianismo o el monofisismo) eran evidentes en algunas tribus que habían entrado en contacto con dichos cultos.

La forma de vida de sedentarios y nómadas era muy distinta y, por ende, su actividad económica. Los beduinos del desierto eran comerciantes aunque también practicaban el pastoreo (lo que encaja con su condición de nómadas) y también practicaban también el pillaje. Los yemeníes en cambio, además del comercio, practicaban la agricultura y la artesanía (actividades relacionadas con su carácter sedentario). Asimismo, había colonias de judíos en los oasis que se dedicaban a la agricultura, la artesanía y al comercio. Algunos de estos oasis tenían mercados estables, debido a que al oasis concurrían numerosas personas, generalmente por algún motivo de carácter religioso.

Dentro de la tribu, entre los nómadas, no existía la propiedad individual, puesto que los rebaños y los pastos eran explotados conjuntamente, aunque también se daba un tipo de propiedad individual, constituida por esclavos o bienes muebles cuyo origen era frecuentemente el pillaje. La propiedad colectiva irá desapareciendo a medida que se inicie el proceso de sedentarización y aumente la actividad comercial.

 EL HIYAZ Y LA MECA

Las numerosas rutas comerciales que, bordeando el desierto cruzan Arabia, desembocan en los puertos de la costa y enlazan la península con el mundo exterior. De esta forma, los árabes entran en contacto con influencias extranjeras: persas, egipcias, griegas, romanas o bizantinas, por ejemplo. Debido a su emplazamiento, su papel de intermediarios era decisivo para estas culturas ya que a través de dichas rutas llegaban al Mediterráneo los productos procedentes de oriente. De esta forma, los beduinos se convierten en los intermediarios de este comercio de perfumes, seda, especias o joyas, en el que también participaban algunas tribus judías. El pillaje era muy frecuente, por lo que era habitual que los comerciantes se agruparan en largas caravanas de camellos para defenderse de los asaltantes.

La ciudad de La Meca está localizada estratégicamente en la región del Hiyaz en un oasis situado en un cruce de caminos para las rutas arábigas. Próxima al puerto de Yeda, en el mar Rojo, su posición favorece las relaciones comerciales con tierras lejanas, a la vez que al estar en el centro de Arabia confluyen en ella las rutas caravaneras que atraviesan la península. A través de éstas, La Meca comerciaba con Egipto, Siria, Palestina, Mesopotamia, Persia y el Yemen. Por otro lado, La Meca se convirtió en una ciudad con un cierto carácter sagrado pues es depositaria de una piedra sagrada de origen meteórico (la Piedra Negra), situada en el santuario de la Kaaba, a la que se rendía culto, por lo que este lugar fue pronto objeto de peregrinación, surgiendo en él una feria anual. Según la tradición islámica. la Kaabacomo centro de cultos preislámicos llegó a albergar a más de 360 ídolos junto con la Piedra Negra. Estas condiciones facilitaron el carácter sagrado e inviolable de La Meca y del santuario (fundado por el patriarca bíblico Abraham) y la obligación de guardar una tregua anual coincidiendo con la feria.

Kaaba_mirror_edit_jj

Santuario de la Kaaba

En la época de Mahoma, La Meca había llegado a convertirse en un centro urbano de considerable importancia. Según la tradición musulmana, ya desde el siglo VI d. c. La Meca queda dominada por la tribu de los qurayshíes (a la que pertenecía Mahoma), que logran establecer una extensa red comercial y pasan a ser los guardianes del santuario. Los distintos clanes qurayshíes se repartieron las funciones para atender a la peregrinación y a la actividad comercial que en La Meca comienza a desarrollarse. De esta forma, se ponen en contacto lugares tan distantes como Etiopía y Yemen con Siria e Iraq, a través de una ruta comercial protegida en época de peregrinaje. Esto permitió convertir un pequeño enclave en un oasis en todo un emporio comercial. El gobierno de la ciudad estaba confiado a las más importantes familias demercaderes, esta posición generaba ambiciones en otros grupos que pretendían alcanzar ese mismo estatus social y económico. Esto producía fuertes tensiones de carácter social que anunciaban profundas transformaciones en Arabia.

————-

http://apuntesdehistoriauniversal.blogspot.com/2012/10/arabia-y-los-arabes-antes-del.html